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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. dheu-, dhu̯-ēi-   'to die, faint, vanish'

Semantic Field: to Die; Dead; Death


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: díth n end, death GED/RPN
  duine adj mortal GED
  duine n.masc person, human being W7/IED
Old English: dēad adj dead GED
  dēaþ n.str.masc death GED
  dwīnan vb.str to dwindle, decrease, vanish GED/ASD
  dȳdan vb.wk to kill GED
Middle English: deed n dead W7
  deeth n death W7
  dien vb to die W7
English: Dáin prop.n dwarf name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  dead adj lifeless, having died AHD/W7
  death n end of life, permanent cessation of vital function AHD/W7
  die vb.intrans to expire, end physical life AHD/W7
  dwindle vb to shrink, diminish, become less AHD/CDC
Old Frisian: dād/dath adj dead GED/ASD
  dāth/dad n.str.masc death GED/ASD
  dēda vb.wk to kill GED
Frisian: dea adj dead ASD
  dea(d) n death ASD
Dutch: dood adj dead ASD
  dood n.masc death ASD
Old Saxon: dōd adj dead GED
  dōð n.str.masc death GED
  dōjan vb.wk to die GED
Old High German: tōd n.str.masc death GED
  tōt adj dead GED
  tōten vb.wk to kill GED/RPN
  touwen vb.wk to die GED/RPN
Middle High German: tōt adj dead ASD
  tōt n.masc death ASD
German: Tod n.masc death ASD
  to(d)t adj dead ASD
  töten vb to kill LRC
Old Norse: dauðr adj/n.masc dead; death LRC
  Dáinn prop.n.masc Dain (Edda dwarf) ICE
  dáinn adj dead, deceased ICE
  deyja vb to die, pass away LRC
Old Icelandic: dauði n.str.masc death GED
  dauðr adj dead GED
  deyða vb.wk to kill GED
  deyja vb.str to die GED
  dvīna vb to dwindle, decrease, vanish GED
Icelandic: dauði n.masc death GED
  dauðr adj dead GED
  dvīna/dvina vb to dwindle, pine away ASD
Danish: død adj dead ASD
  død n.masc/fem death ASD
  tvine vb to weep, vanish ASD
Swedish: död adj dead ASD
  död n.masc death ASD
  twina vb to languish, pine away ASD
Gothic: dauþjan vb.wk.I to kill, put to death GED
  dauþs adj dead GED
  dauþs adj dead RPN
  dauþus n.masc death GED/RPN
  *diwan vb.str.V to die GED
  ga-dauþnan vb.wk.IV to die GED
Latin: fūnus n death, funeral, burial GED/RPN
Hittite: dandukessar n mortality GED
  danduki- adj mortal, human GED
Armenian: di, dīakn n corpse GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
IV=class 4
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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