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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. dheu-, dheu̯ə-, presumably dhu̯ē-, compare suffixes dhu̯ē-k-, dhu̯ē̆-s-   'to blow, dissipate, fly about like dust, etc.'

Semantic Field: to Blow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish:  n smoke LRC
  dumacha n fog GED/RPN
  dūn n fortress W7
Irish: dunn adj dun ASD
  dūd n.masc stump, pipe; ear, mouth W7/IED
  dūidīn n.masc short pipe; dram measure made of horn W7/IED
Gaelic: donn adj dun, brown ASD
Cornish: din/dun n.fem hill ASD
Welsh: dun/dwn adj dusky, swarthy ASD
Old English: adūn(e) adj/adv down, downward W7/ASD
  dēaf adj deaf GED
  dēafu n.str.fem deafness GED
  dēag/dēah n.fem dye IEW/W7
  dēagan, dēog, dēogon, dēagen vb.str to dye ASD
  dēagian vb.wk to dye IEW/ASD
  dēagol/dī(o)gol/dȳgol adj secret, hidden, private IEW/ASD
  *dēan n vapor GED
  dēor/dīor adj/n.neut (brave as) deer, wild beast/animal ASD
  dofian vb to be insane GED
  dol adj foolish W7/ASD
  dox adj dusk W7
  dūfe n dove W7
  dūn n.fem down, hill, mountain W7
  dūne adv down, downwards W7/ASD
  dūn-land n.neut hilly land, lit. down-land ASD
  dun(n) adj/n dun, dark brown W7
  dūst n.neut dust W7
  dwalian/dwoli(g)an vb.wk to err, hinder, go astray ASD
  dwellan/dwe(o)ligan vb.wk to err, hinder, go astray ASD
  dysig adj stupid W7
  stē(a)m/stīem n.masc steam, hot breath/exhalation KEW/ASD
  tūn n.masc town, village; yard, court, enclosure W7
  wild-dēoren adj re: wild beasts W7
Middle English: deef adj deaf W7
  deer n (rein)deer W7
  dehe n dye W7
  disy adj dizzy W7
  dosk n dusk W7
  doun n hill W7
  dove n dove W7
  dul adj dull W7
  dumb adj dumb W7
  dun adj dun W7
  dust n dust W7
  dwellen vb to dwell W7
  fume n fume W7
  funeral adj/n funeral W7
  reindere n reindeer W7
  stem n steam W7
  stove n stove W7
  stu n stew W7
  tanesey n tansy W7
  thyme n thyme W7
  town n town W7
  turrible n thurible W7
  wildern adj wild W7
  wilderness n wilderness W7
English: Barrow-downs prop.n Shire area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  deaf adj lacking/deficient in sense of hearing AHD/W7
  Déagol prop.n Smeagol's cousin in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  deer n ruminant mammal AHD/W7
  Déor prop.n 7th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Déorwine prop.n Rohan knight in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  dizzy adj silly, foolish AHD/W7
  dock n sorrel, coarse weedy plant AHD
  dodder n flax silk IEW
  dodder vb to shake, shiver, tremble, totter IEW
  doldrums n spell of despondence/listlessness AHD/W7
  dolt n stupid fellow AHD/W7
  dove n type of pigeon AHD/W7
  down adv toward/in low physical position AHD/W7
  down n soft fluffy feathers AHD/W7
  down n hill, mountain AHD/W7
  dudeen n short clay tobacco pipe AHD/W7
  Dukhobor prop.n (member of) Russian Christian movement AHD
  dull adj stupid, mentally slow AHD/W7
  dumb adj destitute of speech AHD/W7
  dummkopf n dolt, stupid person AHD
  dun adj re: dull drab dark-gray/brown color AHD/W7
  Duncan prop.n male given name AHD
  dune n wind-piled sand hill/ridge AHD/W7
  Dúnharg/Dunharrow prop.n Rohan refuge in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Dúnhere prop.n lord of Harrowdale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Dunland prop.n hilly area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  dusk adj gloom, twilight AHD/W7
  dust n fine dry pulverized dirt particles AHD/W7
  duvet n down-stuffed quilt/comforter AHD/CDC
  duvetyn n smooth lustrous velvety fabric AHD/W7
  Dwalin prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  Dwaling prop.n distant hobbit town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  dwell, dwelt vb.wk.intrans to remain for a while AHD/W7
  dye n tint, color W7
  dye vb to impart new tint/color IEW
  eiderdown n down of eider AHD/W7
  enthymeme n syllogism in which one premise is implicit AHD/W7
  etouffee n spiced Cajun stew similar to gumbo AHD
  euthanasia n painless putting to death AHD/W7
  Frogmorton prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  fuliginous adj sooty AHD/W7
  fumarole n volcanic hole from which hot gases/vapors issue AHD/W7
  fumatorium n airtight fumigation chamber AHD
  fumatory adj re: smoke/fumigation AHD
  fume n gas, smoke, vapor AHD/W7
  funeral adj/n (re:) observances held for dead person AHD/W7
  funky adj having moldy/musty smell AHD
  fuscous adj re: brownish gray color AHD/W7
  Hobbiton prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Lake-town prop.n a.k.a. Esgaroth in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  obfuscate vb.trans to darken AHD/W7
  perfume n sweet-smelling scent AHD/W7
  reindeer n deer of northern Europe/Asia/America AHD/W7
  sfumato adj smoked, misty, indistinct AHD
  steam n vapor rising from heated substance W7
  stew n utensil used for boiling AHD/W7
  stove n fixed/portable apparatus burning fuel to provide heat AHD/W7
  subfusc adj dull, dark, somber AHD
  tansy n composite herb AHD/W7
  thanatology n study of death/dying AHD
  Thanatos prop.n god of peaceful/natural death (Greek mythology) LRC
  thion- pfx sulfur AHD/W7
  thuja n evergreen shrub/tree of pine family AHD/W7
  thurible n censer AHD/W7
  thurifer n one who carries censer in liturgical service AHD/W7
  thyme n mint herb having small pungent aromatic leaves AHD/W7
  -thymia n.sfx condition of mind/will AHD/W7
  town n hamlet, distinct cluster/aggregation of houses with place-name AHD/W7
  typhlosole n longitudinal fold of intestinal wall AHD
  typhus n human febrile disease AHD/W7
  Wilderland prop.n wilderness area in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  wilderness n uncultivated uninhabited tract/region of land AHD/W7
Old Frisian: dāf adj deaf, senseless, unfeeling GED
  diar/dier n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
  dwela/dwila vb to err ASD
  tūn n.masc fence ASD
Frisian: dol adj mad ASD
  dwæljen/dwyljen vb to err ASD
Middle Dutch: doom n steam, vapor GED
Dutch: dier n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
  dof adj dull, lusterless GED
  dok n dock TLL
  dol adj insane ASD
  doof adj deaf ASD
  duif n dove TLL
  duin n.masc down, hill, mountain ASD
  dwālen vb to err ASD
  stoom n steam TLL
  tuin n.masc fence; garden ASD
Old Saxon: dier n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
  dol adj foolish ASD
  dōmian vb.wk to steam GED
  douf adj deaf ASD
  dovōn vb to be insane GED
  duelan vb to err ASD
  dununga n.str.fem raving GED
Old Low German: tūn n.masc wall ASD
Middle Low German: dōf adj deaf, senseless, unfeeling GED
  stove n heated room, steam room W7
Old High German: dūn(a) n mountain ASD
  stuba n steam room, heated room W7
  tior/tier n.neut wild animal W7/ASD
  tobēn/tobōn vb to rave GED
  tol adj foolish ASD
  toub/toup/doup adj deaf, senseless, unfeeling GED/ASD
  tougal adj dark, secret, hidden ASD
  toum n.str.masc steam, vapor GED/RPN
  toumen vb to be fragrant W7
  tūba n dove W7
  tumb adj dumb, mute W7
  tūmōn vb.wk to turn in a circle GED
  tump adj dumb, deaf GED
  tusig adj stupid W7
  twellen vb to dwell, tarry W7
  zūn n.masc wall, fence, hedge, enclosure W7/ASD
Middle High German: dol/tol adj mad ASD
  tier n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
  tob/top adj without understanding GED
  touben vb.wk to stun, deafen GED
  toup adj deaf ASD
German: Daune n.fem down (feathers) W7
  Dock n dock TLL
  doof adj dopey, silly LRC
  dumm adj dumb, dull, slow, stupid LRC
  Dummkopf n.masc dummkopf, blockhead, simpleton LRC
  Düne n.fem down, hill, mountain ASD
  Eiderdaune n.fem eiderdown W7
  Stube n.fem living room LRC
  taub adj deaf ASD
  Taube n dove TLL
  T(h)ier n.neut animal ASD
  toll adj mad ASD
  Zaun n.masc fence, hedge LRC
Old Norse: daufr adj deaf LRC
  deyja vb to die W7
  dul n.fem reserve, folly; conceit LRC
  dulði/dylja vb to remain unaware of; (mid.) deceive oneself LRC
  dúfa n dove KNW
  dūnn n down (feathers) W7
  Dvalinn prop.n.masc Dvalin/Dwalin (Voluspa dwarf) TPE
  dvalinn n.masc sleeper, hesitant/unconscious one LRC
  dýr n.neut (wild) animal LRC
Old Icelandic: daufr adj deaf, lazy GED
  daunn n stench, bad smell GED/RPN
  deyfa vb.wk to stun, deafen GED
  deyfþ n.str.fem deafness GED
  dofinn vb.past.ptc dull, spiritless GED
  dvala, dvalað vb to dwell, delay, hesitate ICE
  dȳja vb.wk to move, shake GED/RPN
Icelandic: daufr adj deaf ASD
  dulr adj silent, close ASD
  dūnn n down W7
  dȳr n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
  tun n.masc homestead, enclosure ASD
Norwegian: tun n.masc court, farmyard ASD
Danish: dok n dock TLL
  due n dove TLL
  dyr n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
  döv adj deaf ASD
Swedish: djur n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
  docka n dock TLL
  duva n dove TLL
  döf adj deaf ASD
Gothic: *daufs/daubs adj deaf, stubborn GED/ASD
  dauns n.fem smell, scent, fragrance, sense of smell GED/RPN
  dius n.neut deer, wild animal ASD
  dumbs adj dumb, deaf GED
  dwals adj dull ASD
  hraiwa-dubō n turtle-dove GED
Latin: fimus, fimi n.masc dung LRC
  fuligo, fuliginis n.fem soot W7
  fumarium n.neut smoke chamber for aging wine W7
  fūmō, fūmāre vb to fume, reek, smoke W7
  fūmus n.masc fume, smoke, steam GED/RPN
  funeralis adj funeral W7
  funus, funeris n.neut funeral W7
  furo, furere vb to rage W7
  fuscus adj dark brown W7
  subfuscus adj subfusc, brownish AHD
  suffiō, suffīre vb to smoke, perfume, fumigate GED
  thuribulum n.neut censer W7
  thurifer adj incense-burning W7
  thus n.neut incense W7
  thymum n.neut thyme W7
Vulgar Latin: extufa n.fem steam, smoke W7
  extufo, extufāre vb to stew W7
Late Latin: fuliginosus adj covered with soot W7
  fumariolum n.neut smoke chamber for aging wine W7
  obfuscatus vb.ptc made murky W7
  obfusco, obfuscāre, obfuscāvī, obfuscātus vb to make murky W7
Medieval Latin: athanasia n.fem immortality W7
  thuia n.fem a cedar W7
New Latin: Thuja n.fem genus name W7
  thurifer n.masc one who carries a censer in a liturgical service W7
  -thymia sfx -thymia; re: heart W7
  typhus n.masc fever, disease W7
Portuguese: fumo n fume TLL
Spanish: dúnas downs, hills, mountains ASD
  humo n fume TLL
Old French: dum n.masc down W7
  tanesie n.fem tansy (plant genus) W7
Middle French: duvet n.masc down W7
  estuve n.fem stew W7
  fum n.masc smoke W7
  perfum n.masc perfume W7
  thurible n.masc censer W7
  thym n.masc thyme W7
French: dune n.fem dune W7
  duvet n.masc down W7
  duvetine n.fem duvet, cloth made with duvet W7
  fumée n fume TLL
Cajun French: étouffée n etouffee LRC
Old Provençal: perfum n.masc perfume W7
  perfumar vb to perfume W7
Provençal: dauf adj deaf GED
Italian: dúna n.fem elevation of sand thrown up by the sea ASD
  fumaròla n.fem fumarole W7
  fumo n fume TLL
  sfumato adj sfumato AHD
Old Prussian: dumis n smoke GED/RPN
Lithuanian: dujà n dust, spray, drizzle; [pl.] gas GED/RPN
  dujóti vb to sprinkle GED
  dúmai smoke GED/RPN
Latvian: dũmals adj dark-brown GED
  dūlāgs n.masc smoke stick LRC
  dūms n.masc smoke LRC
Old Church Slavonic: dunǫti vb to blow LRC
  dymъ n smoke GED/RPN
Old Russian: dymŭ n smoke LRC
Albanian: deh vb to intoxicate GED
  dêj vb to be intoxicated LRC
Greek: athanasia n.fem immortality W7
  ἀθάνατος adj immortal LRC
  athanatos adj immortal W7
  enthymeisthai vb to keep in mind W7
  enthymēma n.neut a thought W7
  euthanasia n.fem easy death, favored death W7
  Thanatos n.masc Thanatos W7
  thanatos n.masc death W7
  theion adj.neut divine W7
  θνήσκω vb to die LRC
  thyia n.fem cedar tree W7
  θυμιάω vb to burn with smoke LRC
  θύμον/θύμος n.neut thyme LRC
  θῡμός n.masc soul, spirit; heart, mind; passion, courage LRC
  θῡ́νω vb to rush, dart along RPN
  θύος n incense, sacrifice RPN
  θύω vb to sacrifice, make a burnt offering GED
  τύφειν vb to smoke, raise dust RPN
  τυφλός adj blind, unable to perceive GED
  τῦφος n.masc smoke, vapor; conceit, vanity GED
Hittite: túh̯-h̯u-iš n smoke, vapor RPN
Armenian: dedevim vb to wave, sway LRC
Avestan: dunman- n cloud GED
Sanskrit: adhvanīt vb.pret it vanished W7
  dhū́ka-ḥ n wind RPN
  dhūnóti vb to shake, agitate GED/RPN
  dhūpa-ḥ n incense RPN
  dhūmá-ḥ n smoke, mist, vapor RPN
  dhūli-ḥ n dust, powder, pollen RPN
  dhvamsati vb to perish W7
Tocharian B: tweye n dust, vapor RPN
Tocharian A: twe(ye) n dust, vapor GED/RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
pret=preterite (tense)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IED=Patrick S. Dinneen: An Irish-English Dictionary (1927)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
TPE=Lee M. Hollander: The Poetic Edda (1962)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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