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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dhreu-   'to grind, crumble'

Semantic Field: to Grind


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: bedrēosan, bedrēas, bedruron, bedroren vb.str.II to bereave, deprive of LRC
  drēor n.masc blood, gore W7/ASD
  drēorig adj/adv sad, bloody, dreary; sadly, bloodily LRC
  dropa n.masc drop W7/ASD
  dryppan vb to drip W7
  -drysnian sfx to disappear W7
Middle English: drery adj dreary W7
  drippen vb to drip W7
  drop n drop W7
  drupen vb to droop W7
  drysnen vb to fall W7
English: dreary adj sad, doleful AHD/W7
  drip vb to (allow to) fall in drops AHD/W7
  drizzle vb to sprinkle, rain lightly/in small drops AHD/W7
  droop vb to hang/incline downward AHD/W7
  drop n quantity of fluid falling in spherical mass AHD/W7
  drowse vb to fall into light slumber AHD/W7
Old Frisian: dropta n dropping ASD
Dutch: drop n.masc drop ASD
Old Saxon: dropo n.masc drop ASD
  drōr n.masc blood, gore ASD
Old High German: tro(p)fo n.masc drop ASD
  trōr n blood, gore ASD
  trūrēn vb to be sad W7
Middle High German: tropfe n.masc drop ASD
  trōr n.masc blood, dripping ASD
German: Tropfen n.masc drop ASD
Old Norse: drūpa vb to droop W7
Icelandic: dreyri/dröri n.masc blood, gore ASD
  dropi n.masc drop ASD
Danish: draabe n.masc/fem drop ASD
  dryp n.neut drop ASD
Swedish: droppe n.masc drop ASD
Gothic: driusan vb.str to fall W7/GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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