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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: dhu̯ē̆r-, dhu̯ō̆r-, dhur-, dhu̯r̥-   'door'

Semantic Field: Door, Gate

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: dor n door GED
  Dorchū prop.n Doorway-dog GED
  dorus n door LRC
Old Cornish: dor n door GED
Welsh: dor n door GED
Gaulish: duros n door GED
English  
Old English: dor n doorway, gate W7
  duru/dūru n.fem door ASD
  duru-weard n.str.masc door-keeper GED
Middle English: dor n door W7
  dure n door W7
  forclosen vb to foreclose W7
  forein adj foreign W7
  forest n forest W7
English: afforest vb.trans to establish forest cover AHD/W7
  door n swinging/sliding barrier by which entry is opened/closed AHD/W7
  durbar n court held by native Indian prince AHD/W7
  farouche adj marked by shyness/lack of polish AHD/W7
  foreclose vb to debar, shut out AHD/W7
  foreign adj located outside area/country AHD/W7
  forensic adj used in/suitable to/belonging to court AHD/W7
  forest n tract of wooded land AHD/W7
  forum n public/market-place of ancient Roman city used for judicial/public business AHD/W7
  thyroid adj re: large endocrine gland in craniate vertebrates AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: dore/dure n door GED
Frisian: doar(e) n door ASD
Dutch: deur n door TLL
Old Saxon: dor n.neut doorway GED/ASD
  dura/duri n.str.fem door GED
Old High German: tor n.str.neut doorway, gate GED
  tor-warto n.wk.masc door-keeper GED
  tura/turi n.str.fem door GED
German: Thor n.neut gate ASD
  Thüre/Tür n.fem door ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: dyrr n.fem doorway LRC
Old Icelandic: dyrr n.fem doorway GED
Icelandic: dyrr n.fem door ASD
Danish: dør n.neut door ASD
Swedish: dörr n.fem door ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: auga-dauro n.neut window, lit. eye-door GED
  daur/daūr(o) n.fem/neut door(way) GED/ASD
  daurons n vestibule GED
  faura-dauri n.neut street GED
Crimean Gothic: *þur/thurn n door, gate CGo/GED
Italic  
Latin: forās adv forth, outward, outdoors LRC
  forensis adj public, forensic W7
  foris, foris n.fem door; [pl.] gate GED
  forīs adv outside GED
  forum n.neut public place W7
Late Latin: foranus adj (on the) outside W7
  forasticus adj belonging outside W7
Medieval Latin: afforesto, afforestare vb to plant a forest W7
  forestis n.fem forest W7
Portuguese: fora adv out, outside TLL
Spanish: fuera adv out, outside TLL
Old French: forclore, forclos- vb to lock outside W7
  forein adj foreign W7
  fors adv outside W7
French: farouche adj beast afraid of mankind W7
  hors adv out, outside TLL
Italian: fuori adv out, outside TLL
Baltic  
Old Prussian: dauris n door GED
Old Lithuanian: dures n gate GED
Lithuanian: dùrys n door LRC
Latvian: duris/dùrvis n door GED
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: dvĭrĭ n door LRC
  dvorъ n court GED
Albanian  
Albanian: derë n door GED
Hellenic  
Homeric Greek: θύρα n.fem door LRC
Greek: θύρα-ζε adv toward the outside GED
  thyreoeidēs adj shield-shaped, thyroid W7
  thyreos n.masc door-shaped shield W7
  θυρών n vestibule GED
  πρόθυρον n porch GED
Anatolian  
Hittite: andurza adv within GED
Armenian  
Armenian: duṙn n door, gate, court GED
Iranian  
Old Persian: duva-rayā adv at court GED
Persian: dar n door W7
  darbār n court held by prince W7
Avestan: dvarəm n gate GED
  dvar̥m n gate, yard LRC
Indic  
Sanskrit: dvāra n.neut door ASD
  dvā́r- n.fem door, gate GED/ASD
Hindi: darbār n court held by prince W7
Tocharian  
Tocharian B: twere n door LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prop=proper
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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