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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: eg̑-, eg̑(h)om, eg̑ō   'ego, I (pronoun)'

Semantic Field: Human Being


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ic I LRC
Middle English: I I W7
English: ego n self (vs. another) AHD/W7
  egoist n believer in egoism AHD
  egotism n excessive use of 'I/my' AHD/W7
  I (re:) self AHD/W7
  idiotism n excessive use of 'I/my' AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ik I GED
Dutch: ik I TLL
Old Saxon: ic/ik I GED/ASD
Old High German: ih(ha) I GED
German: ich I ASD
Runic: ek(a) I GED
  -ga I GED
Old Icelandic: ek I GED
Icelandic: ek I ASD
Danish: jeg I ASD
Swedish: jag I ASD
Gothic: ik I GED
Crimean Gothic: ich I CGo
Venetic: eχo I GED
Latin: ego I LRC
Italian: io I TLL
Old Prussian: as/es I GED
Old Lithuanian: I GED
Lithuanian: àš I LRC
Latvian: es I LRC
Old Church Slavonic: (j)azъ I LRC
Russian: ya I TLL
Greek: ἐγώ I LRC
Hittite: uk/uga I GED
Classical Armenian: es I LRC
Old Persian: adam I GED
Avestan: azem I GED
Sanskrit: ahám I GED
Tocharian A: ñuk I GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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