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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. en   'in'

Semantic Field: Near (adj)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: en/in(i)- prep in GED
Old English: and/ond conj and AHD
  beneoþan/benyðan prep beneath W7/ASD
  binnan prep within W7
  in prep in, into LRC
  inn prep into GED
  inna(n) adv/prep (from) within LRC
  inne adv/prep inside, within GED
  innemest adj inmost, innermost GED
  innera adj inner GED
  innera adj.comp inner, interior W7
  neoþan adv below, beneath W7
  niþera/neoþera adj.comp nether W7/ASD
  niþer(e) adv down, below, beneath W7/ASD
  underneoþan adv/prep underneath W7/ASD
Northumbrian: bi(o)nna prep within ASD
Middle English: and conj and W7
  ben adv within W7
  beneth(e)/beneyth adv beneath W7/MEV
  dissenteris n dysentery W7
  en- vb.pfx en- W7
  entrailles n entrails W7
  entren vb to enter W7
  in adv/prep/pfx in, in- W7
  inn n inn W7
  inner adj.comp inner W7
  inter-/enter- pfx inter- W7
  intro- pfx intro- W7
  nether adj nether W7
  undernethe prep/adv underneath W7
English: and conj also AHD/W7
  atoll n coral island: lagoon inside reef AHD/W7
  ben adv within AHD/W7
  beneath adv below, in/to lower position AHD/W7
  bilander n small 2-masted merchant vessel AHD/W7
  dedans n open gallery at service end of tennis court AHD/W7
  dysentery n severe infectious diarrhea with mucus/blood passage AHD/W7
  em- vb.pfx be/go/put (with)in/on (e.g. emplace) AHD/W7
  en- vb.pfx be/go/put (with)in/on (e.g. enthrone) AHD/W7
  endo- pfx within AHD
  endoergic adj re: (nuclear) energy absorption AHD
  endothecium n inner lining of mature anther AHD/W7
  enkephalin n endorphin with opiate qualities AHD
  enter vb to go/come in AHD/W7
  enteric adj intestinal, re: enteron AHD/W7
  enteron n intestines, alimentary canal AHD/W7
  ent(o)- pfx inner, inside, within AHD/W7
  entrails n guts, viscera AHD/W7
  entropy n measure of disorder in closed thermodynamic system AHD/W7
  esoteric adj designed for/understood by specially initiated AHD/W7
  esotropia n cross-eye syndrome AHD
  exenterate vb.trans to remove contents of (e.g. pelvis) AHD/W7
  in- pfx (with)in, into, toward AHD/W7
  in prep into, inside, within AHD/W7
  inn n public house for lodging/entertaining travelers AHD/W7
  inner adj.comp situated farther in AHD/W7
  inter- pfx between, among, amidst AHD/W7
  interim n interval, time intervening AHD/W7
  interior adj inner, lying/occurring/functioning within limits AHD/W7
  interloper n meddler, intruder, encroacher AHD/W7
  intern adj internal AHD/W7
  internal adj existing/situated within limits/surface AHD/W7
  intestine adj internal AHD/W7
  intestine n tubular alimentary canal from stomach to anus AHD/W7
  intima n innermost coat of organ AHD/W7
  intimate vb.trans to declare, announce AHD/W7
  intine n endosporium, innermost wall of spore/pollen grain AHD
  intra- pfx within AHD/W7
  intrados n interior curve of arch/vault AHD/W7
  intro- pfx in, into AHD/W7
  introgression n ingress, going in AHD/W2I
  introvert vb to turn/draw inward AHD/W7
  intussusception n drawing in from without AHD/W7
  inventory n itemized list AHD/W7
  inverness n loose belted coat with cape AHD/W7
  mesentery n vertebrate membrane: double fold of peritoneum AHD/W7
  nether adj lower, situated down/below AHD/W7
  sannyasi n Hindu ascetic mendicant AHD/W7
  underneath prep directly below, close beneath AHD/W7
Old Frisian: binn(i)a prep within ASD
  in prep in, into GED
  in(n)a adv/prep inside GED/ASD
  inne adv inside, within ASD
  innere/inra adj inner GED/ASD
  nither adv down, below, beneath ASD
Frisian: binnen prep within ASD
Dutch: billander n bilander W7
  bin prep inside W7
  binnen prep within ASD
  en conj and TLL
Old Saxon: in prep in, into GED
  inna(n) adv/prep inside, within GED
  inne adv inside, within ASD
  niðar adv down, below, beneath ASD
Old High German: enti conj and W7
  in prep in, into GED
  inna/inni/inne adv/prep inside, within ASD
  in(n)ana/innan adv/prep inside, within GED/ASD
  innaro/innero adj inner GED/ASD
  nidar prep/adv down W7/ASD
  unt prep/conj unto, until W7
  untar prep between, among W7
Middle High German: binnen prep within ASD
German: binnen prep within ASD
  in prep in, into LRC
  innen adv within ASD
  nieder adj/adv low, down, nether ASD
  und conj and TLL
Old Norse: inn adv in, within LRC
  innan prep into, (from) within LRC
  inni adv inside, within LRC
  inni n inn, dwelling W7
  í prep in, within; among; during; into, onto LRC
  neðan adv underneath, from below/beneath LRC
  niðr adv down LRC
  undorn n.masc the time before or after the midday meal LRC
Old Icelandic: inni adv/prep inside GED
  inri adj inner GED
  ī prep in GED
  niðra, niðrað vb to lower, put down ICE
Icelandic: innan adv/prep (from) within ASD
  inni adv indoors ASD
  inri/iðri adj inner ASD
  í prep in, into ASD
  niðr adv down, below, beneath ASD
Danish: i prep in TLL
  nederdel n skirt TLL
Swedish: i prep in TLL
Gothic: in prep in, to, towards; by, among LRC
  inn prep into GED
  inna(n)/innana prep/adv within, inwardly GED/ASD
  innuma adj inner GED
Old Latin: en prep in GED
  endo adv/prep in GED
  interus adj inward, interior W7
Latin: dysenteria n.fem dysentery W7
  en- pfx in W7
  exentero, exenterare, exenteravi, exenteratus vb to disembowel W7
  in/in-/im- prep/pfx in, into LRC
  inter prep/pfx between, among LRC
  interaneum n.neut intestine(s) W7
  interaneus adj interior W7
  interim adv meanwhile W7
  interior adj inside W7
  internus adj internal W7
  interpretor, interpretāri, interpretātus vb.dep to interpret LRC
  intestinum n.neut intestine(s) W7
  intestinus adj of the interior W7
  intimus adj most interior, secret W7
  intrā adv/prep inside, within, during LRC
  intro, intrāre vb to enter W7
  intrō adv/pfx within, (to the) inside W7
  intus adv within W7
Late Latin: esotericus adj of within, re: writings destined to be read within a school W7
  intimo, intimāre, intimāvī, intimātus vb to put in, announce W7
Medieval Latin: intralia n.fem entrails W7
New Latin: end- pfx inside W7
  mesenterium n.neut membranes in abdominal cavity W7
Portuguese: em prep in TLL
  entre prep between, among TLL
Spanish: en prep in TLL
  entre prep between, among TLL
Old French: en- prep in W7
  entrer vb to enter W7
Middle French: en-/in- pfx in W7
  entrailles entrails W7
  inter- pfx between W7
  interior adj interior W7
  interne adj internal W7
  intestin n.masc intestine W7
  intro- pfx inside W7
  mesentere n.fem mesentery, intestinal membrane W7
French: dans prep in TLL
  dedans prep inside W7
  en prep in TLL
  entre prep between, among TLL
  intrados n.masc interior curve of arch/vault W7/R1
Italian: in prep in TLL
Old Prussian: en prep in GED
Lithuanian: į̃/iñ prep in GED
Latvian: iekš adv in LRC
Old Church Slavonic:  prep in, into LRC
  n'iva n.fem field, ground LRC
  on- pfx in GED
Greek: dysenteria n.fem dysentery W7
  εἰς, ἐς prep towards LRC
  eisō adv within W7
  ἐν/ἔνι/ἐνί prep in GED
  en- pfx in W7
  ἔνδον adv/prep within GED
  ἔνειμι vb to be in, be possible LRC
  enteron n.neut intestine W7
  exenterizein vb to burst out W7
  esō adv within W7
  esōterikos adj of within, writings destined to be read within a school W7
  esōterō adv within W7
Hittite: anda(n) adv/prep in GED
Armenian: i prep in GED
Sanskrit: antara- n interior AHD
  ántaras prep inside GED
  antár prep between GED
  ni- pfx one's own GED
  ni prep down W7
Hindi: sannyāsī n Hindu ascetic mendicant W7
Tocharian B: -ne prep in GED
Tocharian A: -an prep in GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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