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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: en(o)mn̥-, (o)nomn̥, nōmn̥   'name'

Semantic Field: Name

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Shelta: munik n name, moniker AHD
English  
Old English: nama n.wk.masc name LRC
  nemn(i)an, nemde, nemed vb.wk.I to name, call ASD
Middle English: misnoumer n misnomer W7
  name n name W7
  nominalle adj nominal W7
  nowne n noun W7
  pronom n pronoun W7
  renown n renown W7
English: acronym n word formed by first letters of name AHD
  agnomen n additional honorific cognomen AHD/W7
  allonym n another name assumed by author AHD/W7
  anonymous adj having/giving no name AHD/W7
  antonomasia n substitution of title/epithet for name AHD
  binomial n two mathematical terms connected by +/- sign AHD/W7
  cognomen n surname AHD/W7
  denominate vb.trans to designate, give name to AHD/W7
  eponym n person for whom thing is (supposedly) named AHD/W7
  eponymous adj re: eponym AHD
  euonymus n evergreen shrub/vine/small tree of staff tree family AHD/W7
  homonymous adj ambiguous, having same name AHD/W7
  ignominy n deep personal disgrace/humiliation AHD/W7
  matronymic/metronymic adj/n (re:) maternal ancestor's name AHD
  metonymy n figure of speech: use of one thing's name for another AHD/W7
  misnomer n misnaming of person in legal document AHD/W7
  moni(c)ker n.sl personal name/nickname AHD
  name n distinctive designation of person/thing AHD/W7
  Nameless prop.n a.k.a. Sauron in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  nominal adj re: word/expression taking noun construction AHD/W7
  nominate vb.trans to name, designate AHD/W7
  noun n word referring to person/place/thing AHD/W7
  onomastic adj re: name(s) AHD/W7
  -onym n.sfx name, word AHD/W7
  paronomasia n pun, play on words AHD/W7
  paronymous adj conjugate AHD/W7
  patronymic adj/n (re:) paternal ancestor's name AHD/W7
  praenomen n first name (usu. of three) of ancient Roman AHD/W7
  pronoun n short word used as substitute for noun AHD/W7
  pseudonym n fictitious name AHD/W7
  renown n fame, being widely acclaimed/highly honored AHD/W7
  synonym n word having same/similar meaning LRC
  synonymous adj having same/similar meaning AHD
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: noma n name ASD
Dutch: naam n name LRC
Old Saxon: namo n name ASD
  nemnian vb to name, call ASD
Old High German: namo n name W7
  nemnian vb to name, call ASD
German: Name n.masc name LRC
  Nomen n.neut noun LRC
  Pronomen n.neut pronoun LRC
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: nafn n.neut name LRC
Icelandic: nafn n name ASD
  nefna vb to name, call ASD
Danish: navn n name LRC
Swedish: namn n name LRC
E-Germanic  
Gothic: namnjan vb to name, call ASD
  namō n.wk.neut name LRC
Italic  
Latin: agnomen n.neut additional honorific name W7
  agnosco, agnoscere, agnōvi, agnītum vb to recognize, know again AHD/CLD
  antonomasia n antonomasia AHD
  binominis adj having two names W7
  cognomen n.neut nickname W7
  denomino, denominare, denominavi, denominatus vb to name W7
  euonymos n.fem spindle tree W7
  homonymus adj having the same name W7
  ignominia n.fem ignominy W7
  ignoro, ignorāre vb to be ignorant of, ignore W7
  metonymia n.fem metonymy W7
  nomen, nominis n.neut name, repute LRC
  nominalis adj of a name W7
  nōmino, nōminare, nōnināvī, nōminātus vb to name W7
  paronomasia n.fem paronomasia W7
  praenomen, praenominis n.neut first name W7
  pronomen, pronominis n.neut pronoun W7
Late Latin: anōnymus adj anonymous AHD
  patronymicum n.neut patronymic, name of father W7
  patronymicus adj patronymic W7
Medieval Latin: binomium n.neut binome, having two names W7
  binomius adj having two names W7
  nominalis adj nominal, in name W7
New Latin: binomium n.neut binomial W7
  euonymus adj well-named W7
Old French: nom n.masc noun, name W7
  nomer vb to name W7
  renomer vb to celebrate W7
  renon n.masc glory, renown W7
Anglo-French: noun n.masc name, noun W7
Middle French: ignominie n.fem ignominy W7
  mesnommer vb to misname W7
  nommer vb to name W7
French: allonyme adj allonym, bearing another name W7
  -onyme n.sfx name W7
  pseudonyme n.masc pseudonym, false name W7
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: imę n.neut name LRC
Hellenic  
Greek: antonomazein vb to name instead AHD
  anōnymos adj without a name W7
  ἐπωνυμία n.fem name, designation LRC
  epōnymos adj eponymous W7
  euōnymos adj having an auspicious name W7
  metōnymia n.fem metonymy W7
  homōnymos adj having the same name W7
  ὄνομα n.neut name LRC
  ὀνομάζειν vb to speak of by name; to name LRC
  ὀνομασία n.fem language LRC
  onomastikos adj of names W7
  paronomazein vb to call with a slight change of name, to derive W7
  paronomasia n.fem paronomasia, making of words by slight change, derivation W7
  parōnymos n.neut paronymous W7
  patronymia n.fem patronymic W7
  patronymikos adj patronymic W7
  pseudōnymos adj bearing a false name W7
  -ōnymia sfx name W7
  -ōnymos sfx name W7
Armenian  
Classical Armenian: anun n name LRC

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
prop=proper
sfx=suffix
sl=slang
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CLD=Cassell's Latin Dictionary (1959, rev. 1968)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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