The University of Texas at Austin; College of Liberal Arts
Hans C. Boas, Director :: PCL 5.556, 1 University Station S5490 :: Austin, TX 78712 :: 512-471-4566
LRC Links: Home | About | Books Online | EIEOL | IE Doc. Center | IE Lexicon | IE Maps | IE Texts | Pub. Indices | SiteMap

Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. er- : or- : r-   'to move, set in motion'

Semantic Field: to Move


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: renn adj rapid GED
  rīan n sea GED
Gaulish: Rēnos prop.n Rhine river GED
  rēnos n river AHD
  rhynn adj fast; alive; agitated LRC
Old English: ærnan vb.wk to cause to run GED
  a-rǣman vb.wk to raise, elevate, lift up IEW/ASD
  arīsan, arās, arison, arisen vb.str to arise W7/ASD
  arod adj quick, swift; ready, prepared ASD
  earon are LRC
  eart art W7
  earu adj quick, swift; ready, prepared IEW
  earun are W7
  eorl n.masc earl, warrior LRC
  eorl-scipe/eorl-scype n.indec.masc nobility, heroic deeds ASD
  eornost n earnest; duel, battle GED
  gerennan vb to cause to coagulate W7
  iernan/iornan vb.str to run, flow GED
  irnan, arn, urnon, urnen vb.str to run, flow ASD
  rǣran n rear W7
  rennan vb to cause to run W7
  rinnan, rann, runnon, runnen vb.str to run, flow GED/ASD
  rīsan, rās, rison, risen vb.str to rise W7/ASD
  rīð n.masc rill, brook, rivulet GED
  ryne n.masc run, stream GED
  rynel n runnel W7
Northumbrian: aron are AHD
  arrīsa vb.intrans to arise CDC
  art(h) art CDC
Middle English: are are LRC
  arisen vb to arise W7
  art/ert art W7/CDC
  deriven vb to derive W7
  erl n earl W7
  ernest n earnest W7
  orient n orient W7
  origine n origin W7
  raisen vb to raise W7
  rennen vb to cause to coagulate W7
  rennet n rennet W7
  reren vb to rear W7
  rinel n runnel W7
  rinnen/ronnen vb to run W7
  risen vb to rise W7
  romen vb to roam W7
English: abort vb to bring forth premature/stillborn offspring AHD/W7
  are (thou) be AHD/W7
  are (we/you/they) be AHD/W7
  arise, arose, arisen vb.str.intrans to rise, get up AHD/W7
  Arod prop.n Legolas' horse in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  art (thou) are AHD/W7
  derive vb to take/receive, esp. from specified source AHD/W7
  Dimrill prop.n high pass in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  earl n nobleman LRC
  earnest n intent/serious mental state AHD/W7
  Eorl prop.n 1st Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Eorlingas prop.n a.k.a. Rohirrim in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Gilrain prop.n Gondor river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hormogonium n portion of cyanobacterium filament AHD
  hormone n biological product circulating in sap/body fluid stimulating cell activity AHD/W7
  orient n the east, eastern lands/regions AHD/W7
  orient vb.trans to cause to face/point east AHD/W7
  oriental adj eastern, re: orient W7
  origin n parentage, ancestry AHD/W7
  original adj first, preceding all others AHD
  raise vb to cause/help to rise to upright position AHD/W7
  rear vb to construct, erect by building AHD/W7
  rennet n stomach contents of unweaned animal AHD/W7
  Rhine prop.n major European transportation river LRC
  rill n very small brook AHD/W7
  rill n channel made by small stream AHD/W7
  rise, rose, risen vb.str.intrans to assume upright position AHD/W7
  rival n one striving to reach/obtain something that only one can possess AHD/W7
  rivulet n brook, small stream AHD/W7
  roam vb to wander, go without direction IEW/W7
  run, ran, run vb.str to move on foot faster than walking speed AHD/W7
  run n creek, stream GED
  runnel n streamlet, rivulet AHD/W7
Old Frisian: blōd-rene n run, course ASD
  renna vb.wk to cause to run GED
  rinna vb.str to run, flow GED
  rīsa vb to rise ASD
  run n.masc run, stream GED
Frisian: ril n rill OED
Dutch: Rijn prop.n Rhine river LRC
  ril n rill W7
Old Saxon: erl n.masc earl, man, male offspring ASD
  rennian vb.wk to cause to run GED
  rīð n.masc brook GED
  rinnan vb.str to run, flow GED
  rīsan vb to rise ASD
Low German: rille n rill W7
Old High German: ar-rīsan vb.intrans to arise CDC
  ernust n.str earnest, firmness GED
  ir-rīsan vb.intrans to arise CDC
  rennan vb.wk to cause to run GED
  rinnan vb.str to run, flow GED
  rīsan vb to rise W7
  rōr(a) n reed, cane KDW
  run n.masc run, stream GED
  ur-rīsan vb.intrans to arise CDC
Middle High German: ernest n.str.masc earnest; battle GED
German: Ernst n.masc earnest LRC
  rennen vb to run LRC
  Rhein prop.n Rhine river LRC
  Rille n.fem rill W7
  rinnen vb to flow, run LRC
  Rohr n.neut reed, cane, pipe, tube, duct LRC
  Röhre n.fem pipe; canal, channel, conduit TLL
Old Norse: ert thou art W7
  eru they are W7
  erum we are W7
  jarl n.masc earl, free-born man, gentleman LRC
  reisa(t) vb to raise, set up LRC
  renna vb.wk to cause to run LRC
  reyrr n reed LRC
  rinna vb.str to run LRC
  ördugr/örðigr adj quick, swift; ready, prepared ASD
Old Icelandic: ern adj able, energetic GED
  rinna vb.str to run, flow GED
  runi n.masc run, stream GED
Icelandic: earl/jarl n.masc earl, chief, warrior, gentleman ASD
  renna/rinna vb to run, flow ASD
  rīsa vb to rise ASD
  runi n flux, stream ASD
Danish: er vb.anom am/are/is, are TLL
  rør n pipe TLL
Swedish: rör n pipe TLL
  är am, are, is TLL
  äro are TLL
Gothic: *and-rinnan vb.str.V to debate, dispute, discuss GED
  arniba adv certain GED
  *at-rinnan vb.str.V to run, come up GED
  *bi-rinnan vb.str.V to surround, gather round GED
  *du-rinnan vb.str.V to approach, run up GED
  *fair-rinnan vb.str.V to reach, extend to GED
  *faur-rinnan vb.str.V to precede, go before GED
  garuns n.str.fem street LRC
  raus n reed, stalk KGW
  *rinnan vb.str.V to run, walk, go GED
  runs n run, course ASD
  urreisan vb.str.I to arise LRC
  urrinnan vb.str.III to rise, come from, go forth LRC
Latin: aborior, aborīrī, abortus vb to perish by untimely birth, disappear W7
  aborto, abortāre vb to miscarry W7
  derivo, derivāre vb to float away W7
  exorior, exorīrī, exortus vb.dep to arise, appear LRC
  oriens, orientis vb.pres.ptc rising W7
  origo, originis n.fem rising, beginning W7
  orior, orīri vb.dep to rise, get up, be born W7
  rivalis adj of a stream W7
  rivulus n.masc small stream W7
  rīvus n.masc brook, stream W7
Middle French: dériver vb to derive, be washed away W7
  orient n.masc the East W7
  orienter vb to orient, guide W7
  origine n.fem origin, beginning W7
  rival adj rival W7
French: orienter vb to orient, guide W7
Italian: rivoletto n.masc rivulet W7
  rivolo n.masc rivulet, brook W7
Old Church Slavonic: ratь n battle GED
  rinǫti vb to thrust GED
  rěka n.fem river LRC
Russian: ronítь vb to let fall GED
Albanian: jerm n delirium GED
Homeric Greek: ὄρνῡμι vb to move, awake, arise, arouse LRC
Greek: ἀνατέλλειν vb to make (the sun) rise GED
  ἀπέρχομαι vb to go back LRC
  εἰσέρχομαι vb to enter LRC
  ἐξέρχομαι vb.dep to come out LRC
  ἐρίζω vb to quarrel LRC
  ἔρις n.fem strife LRC
  ἔρχομαι vb to come, go LRC
  ὀρίνω vb to stir GED
  hormē n.fem impulse, assault W7
  hormōn vb.ptc assaulting W7
  ὄρνυμαι vb to begin GED
  προσέρχομαι vb to come to LRC
  συνέρχομαι vb.dep to unite, come together LRC
Hittite: ar-ai-/ar-iya- vb to rise, raise, rouse LRC
  ar-i vb to arrive LRC
  ar-nu-mi vb to bring, set in motion LRC
Classical Armenian: ordi n son LRC
Armenian: ari vb to arise, get up LRC
  yarnem vb to rise, get up GED
Avestan: ar- vb to move, reach, raise LRC
Sanskrit: ara adj quick ASD
  iyarti vb to set in motion GED
  irya adj agile, energetic GED
  r̥ṇóti vb to stir, move, arise LRC
  r̥ṇváti vb to move, arise GED
  r̥ti- n attack, battle GED
  rayas n flood GED
  ríṇvati vb to cause to flow GED
  rināti vb to cause to flow GED
  rī́yate vb to begin to flow GED
Tocharian B: er- vb to cease, abandon, come to an end LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
2=2nd person
3=3rd person
I=class 1
III=class 3
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

Nearby etyma:    previous   |   next