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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. erə-, rē-, er(e)-   'to row; oar'

Semantic Fields: to Row; Oar


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: rōðer n.neut rudder W7/ASD
  rōwan vb.str to row W7/ASD
Middle English: rother n rudder W7
  rowen vb to row W7
English: bireme n galley with 2 oar banks AHD/W7
  remex n bird's primary/secondary quill feather AHD/W7
  row vb to propel boat via oars AHD/W7
  rudder n boat steering mechanism: flat wood/metal piece attached upright to stern AHD/W7
  trierarch n trireme commander AHD/W7
  trireme n galley with 3 oar banks AHD/W7
Dutch: roer n rudder TLL
Old High German: ruodar n oar, rudder ASD
Middle High German: rüejen vb to row W7
German: Ruder n.neut rudder LRC
  rudern vb to row LRC
Icelandic: róa vb to row ASD
Danish: ror n rudder TLL
Swedish: roder n rudder TLL
Latin: biremis adj with two oars W7
  remex, remigis n.masc oarsman W7
  rēmus n.masc oar W7
  trierarchus n.masc trierarch W7
  triremis adj trireme W7
Greek: triērarchos n.masc trierarch W7
  triērēs n.fem trireme W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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