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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: es-   'is, to be'

Semantic Field: to Live; Living; Life


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: am, at, is am, are, is LRC
Old English: eom/(e)am, is vb.anom.1/ am, is AHD/ASD
  gēse/gese/gise/gyse adv yes W7/ASD
  prūd adj proud, arrogant W7/ASD
  sind(on) are LRC
  sōð adj/n.neut sooth W7
  sōð-gi(e)d n.neut sooth, lit. true tale ASD
  sōðian vb.wk to soothe W7/ASD
  synn n sin W7
Middle English: absent adj absent W7
  am, is vb.anom.1/ am, is LRC
  essence n essence W7
  interesse/interest n interest W7
  present adj present W7
  presenten vb to present W7
  proud adj proud W7
  quintessence n quintessence W7
  representen vb to represent W7
  sinne n sin W7
  sooth n sooth W7
  sothen vb to soothe W7
  yes adv yes W7
English: abessive adj (grammatical case) re: absence AHD
  absent adj missing, not present/attending AHD/W7
  adessive adj (grammatical case) re: adjacency AHD
  am, is vb.anom.1/ to be, exist, become AHD/W7
  bodhisattva n being who refrains from entering nirvana to save others AHD/W7
  entity n existence, being AHD/W7
  essence n permanent as contrasted with accidental element of being AHD/W7
  essive adj (grammatical case) re: temporary state/capacity AHD
  inessive adj not essive AHD
  interest n right/title/legal share AHD/W7
  ossia conj or else AHD
  Parousia prop.n Second Coming of Christ (Christianity) LRC
  present adj now existing/in progress AHD/W7
  present vb to bring/introduce into someone's presence AHD/W7
  proud adj feeling/showing pride AHD/W7
  Proudfoot prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  quintessence n fifth, highest essence in ancient/medieval philosophy AHD/W7
  represent vb to present, bring clearly before AHD/W7
  schizont n sporozoan cell segmented by schizogony AHD
  sin n offense against God AHD/W7
  sooth adj/n true; truth AHD/W7
  soothe vb to prove/declare/verify truth AHD/OED
  suttee n act/custom of Hindu widow cremating herself on husband's funeral pyre to show devotion AHD/W7
  swastika n symbol/ornament: Greek cross with arm ends bent at same right angle AHD/W7
  yes adv (expressing assent/agreement) AHD/W7
Old Frisian: sende n fault, wrong, crime, misdeed ASD
Dutch: zij be! TLL
  zijn vb.anom to be TLL
  zijn are TLL
  zijnd vb.anom.pres.ptc being TLL
Old Saxon: sōð adj/n sooth ASD
  sundia n fault, wrong, crime, misdeed ASD
Old High German: sand adj true W7
  sīn vb.anom to be W7
  sunta n sin, fault, crime, misdeed W7/ASD
German: ist is LRC
  sei vb.anom.2/ be! let be TLL
  seid (you) are TLL
  seiend vb.anom.pres.ptc being  
  sein vb.anom to be TLL
  sind are LRC
Old Norse: em, est, es am, are, is LRC
  esum, esuþ, esu are LRC
  sandr n sand; beach, shore LRC
Icelandic: saðr/sannr adj sooth ASD
  sanna vb to prove, make good ASD
  synd n fault, wrong, crime, misdeed ASD
Gothic: im, is, ist am, are, is LRC
  sijau, sijais, sijai may be TLL
  sijum, sijuþ, sind are LRC
  sunja n.str.fem sooth LRC
Old Latin: siem, sies, siet may be TLL
Latin: absens, absentis adj absent W7
  absum, abesse vb to be absent W7
  desum, deesse, defuī vb to be lacking LRC
  ens adj/vb.ptc existing W7
  eram, eras, erat was, were TLL
  ero, eris, erit will be TLL
  esse vb.anom.inf to be LRC
  essentia n.fem essence W7
  intersum, interesse, interfuī vb to concern, lie between LRC
  praesens, praesentis adj/vb.ptc present, helping, attending W7
  praesento, praesentare vb to show, present W7
  praesum, praesse, praefui vb to be before, have charge of, preside over LRC
  prosum, prodesse vb to be advantageous W7
  repraesento, repraesentare vb to represent W7
  sum, es, est am, are, is LRC
  sumus, estis, sunt are LRC
Late Latin: prode n.neut advantage W7
Medieval Latin: entitas n.fem entity, whole W7
Spanish: ser vb.anom to be TLL
  somos, sois, son are TLL
  soy, eres, es am, are, is TLL
Old French: present adj present, attending, being there W7
  presenter vb to show, present, introduce W7
  prod, prud adj proud W7
  prou adj/n.masc good, capable; advantage W7
Anglo-French: interesse n.masc interest W7
Middle French: absent adj absent W7
  essence n.fem essence W7
  representer vb to represent W7
French: être vb.anom to be TLL
  sommes, êtes, sont are TLL
  suis, es, est am, are, is TLL
Italian: essere vb.anom to be TLL
  ossia conj or else, that is AHD
  senza prep without, in the absence of TLL
  sia is, be AHD
  siamo, siete, sono are TLL
  sono, sei, è am, are, is TLL
Lithuanian: esmì, esì, estì am, are, is LRC
Old Church Slavonic: jes-, jesmь, jesi vb to be LRC
Albanian: jam vb to be IEW
Greek: ἐξετάζω vb to inquire LRC
  ἐξουσία n.fem power LRC
  ἐσθλόν adj good LRC
  εσμι, εἶ(ς), ἐστί am, are, is LRC
  eteos adj true W7
  pareinai vb to be present W7
  Parousia n.fem Parousia W7
  parōn, parontos vb.pres.ptc present W7
Hittite: esmeni, esteni, asanzi are LRC
  esmi, essi, eszi am, are, is LRC
Classical Armenian: em, es, e am, are, is LRC
Sanskrit: ásmi, ási, ásti am, are, is LRC
  bodhisattva n one whose essence is enlightenment W7
  satī n wife who performs suttee, lit. good woman W7
  sat adj true, good W7
  sattva n being W7
  smá, sthá, sánti are LRC
  syā́m, syā́s, syā́t may be TLL
  svasti n welfare W7
  svastika n swatika, symbol in shape thereof W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
1=1st person
2=2nd person
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
fut=future (tense)
imp=imperative (mood)
impf=imperfect (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
opt=optative (mood)
pl=plural (number)
pres=present (tense)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
subj=subjunctive (mood)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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