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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. eu-, euə- : u̯ā-, u̯ə-   'to lack, want; empty, vacant'

Semantic Field: Empty

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Old English: wan adj lacking, wanting, deficient GED
  wana n.masc wane, lack, deficiency W7
  wanian vb.wk to wane, diminish GED
Middle English: avoiden/avoyden vb to avoid W7/CDC
  devoid adj devoid W7
  devoiden vb to vacate W7
  vacacioun n vacation W7
  vacant adj vacant W7
  vain adj vain W7
  vanisshen vb to vanish W7
  vanite n vanity W7
  vaunten vb to vaunt, brag W7
  voide adj void W7
  voiden vb to void W7
  wane n wane W7
  wanen vb to wane W7
  wanten vb to want W7
  wast(e) adj waste W7
  wasten vb to waste W7
English: avoid vb.trans to void, expel AHD/W7
  devastate vb.trans to lay waste AHD/W7
  devoid adj destitute, not having/using AHD/W7
  evacuate vb to make empty AHD/W7
  evanesce vb.intrans to dissipate like vapor AHD/W7
  vacant adj free, not occupied AHD/W7
  vacate vb to annul, make legally void AHD/W7
  vacation n intermission, (time of) respite AHD/W7
  vacuity n empty space AHD/W7
  vacuous adj empty W7
  vacuum n emptiness of space AHD/W7
  vain adj idle, worthless, having no value AHD/W7
  vanish vb.intrans to disappear, pass quickly from sight AHD/W7
  vanity n something vain AHD/W7
  vast adj enormous, very great in size/extent W7
  vaunt vb to brag, make vain display of one's worth/attainments AHD/W7
  void adj containing nothing AHD/W7
  void vb.trans to clear, empty, make vacant AHD/W7
  wane n decrease, dwindling AHD/W7
  wane vb.intrans to dwindle, decrease in size/extent AHD/W7
  want vb to lack, fail to possess AHD/W7
  waste adj desolate, being wild/uninhabited AHD/W7
  waste n desert, barren/sparsely settled region AHD/W7
  waste vb to devastate, lay waste AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: wan adj lacking GED
  wania vb.trans to lessen, curtail, diminish ASD
  won adj absent, wanting ASD
  wonia vb.wk to wane, diminish GED
Dutch: wan n leak GED
Old Saxon: wan adj absent, lacking, wanting GED
Middle Low German: wone n hole in ice GED
Old High German: wan/wesan adj lacking, wanting GED/ASD
  wanōn vb.wk to wane, lessen, diminish GED
  wuosti adj waste W7
Middle High German: wune n hole in ice GED
N-Germanic  
Old Norse: vanta vb to wane, lack, want W7
Old Icelandic: vana vb.wk to wane, diminish GED
  vanr adj lacking GED
Icelandic: vana vb.trans to spoil, destroy, diminish ASD
  vanr adj absent, wanting ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: wan n.neut wane, lack GED
  *wanan vb.wk to wane, diminish GED
  *wans adj lacking, deficient, at a disadvantage GED
Italic  
Latin: devasto, devastare, devastavi, devastatus vb to devastate W7
  evacuo, evacuare, evacuavi, evacuatus vb to evacuate W7
  evanesco, evanescere vb to vanish, evanesce W7
  ēvoco, ēvocare, ēvocāvī, ēvocatum vb to summon, call forth LRC
  prōvocō, provocāre, provocāvī, provocātum vb to challenge LRC
  vacans, vacantis vb.ptc vacant W7
  vacatio, vacationis n.fem freedom, exemption W7
  vacō, vacāre, vacāvī, vacātus vb to vacate, be vacant W7
  vacuitas n.fem emptiness, vacuity W7
  vacuum n.neut vacuum W7
  vacuus adj vacuous W7
  vanesco, vanescere vb to vanish W7
  vanitas, vanitatis n.fem vanity W7
  vānus adj vain; void, vacant, vacuous GED
  vasto, vastāre vb to desolate, lay waste W7
  vastus adj vast; waste, desolate W7
Vulgar Latin: exvanire vb to evanesce W7
  vocitus adj/vb.ptc void, vacuous W7
Late Latin: vanito, vanitāre vb to be vain W7
Old French: desvuidier vb to be devoid W7
  esvuidier/esveudier vb to empty out W7/CDC
  vacant adj vacant, empty W7
  vain adj vain, empty, without effect W7
  vanité n.fem vanity W7
  voide adj void W7
  vuidier vb to void W7
Old North French: wast adj waste, desolate W7
  waster vb to lay waste W7
Anglo-French: avoider vb to avoid CDC
Middle French: desvuidier vb to be devoid W7
  evanir, evaniss- vb to vanish W7
  vacation n.fem freedom, vacuity W7
  vanter vb to boast W7
  vuidier vb to void W7
Baltic  
Lithuanian: vañskariai n unhatched eggs GED
Latvian: vanskare n unhatched eggs GED
Hellenic  
Greek: εὖνις adj lacking GED
Armenian  
Armenian: unayn adj empty GED
Iranian  
Avestan: ūna- adj lacking, defective GED
Indic  
Sanskrit: ūnás adj lacking, defective GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
intrans=intransitive
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
ptc=participle
trans=transitive
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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