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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: gen-   'to pinch, press together, etc.'

Semantic Field: to Press


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: cnap n knop, top ASD
Gaelic: cna(i)p n.masc knop, top ASD
Welsh: cnap n knop, top ASD
Old English: cnæp(p)/cnep n.masc knap, knop W7/ASD
  cnedan vb to knead W7
  cnīf n.masc knife W7/ASD
  cnocian vb to knock W7
  cnoll n.masc knoll W7/ASD
  -cnoppa sfx knob W7
  cnotta n.masc knot W7/ASD
  cnyccean vb to tie, bundle W2I
  cnyll(s)an vb to knell W7/ASD
  cnys(s)an, cnysede, cnysed vb.wk.I to beat, strike ASD
  cnyttan/cnittan vb.wk to knit, tie with knot W7/ASD
  cnyttels n string, sinew RPN
Middle English: knap n knap, summit W7
  knappen vb to hit, strike W7
  knarre n knar AHD
  kneden vb to knead W7
  knellen vb to knell W7
  knif n knife W7
  knitten vb to knit W7
  knobbe n knob W7
  knokel n knuckle W7
  knoken vb to knock W7
  knol n knoll W7
  knollen vb to knoll, resound W7
  knop n knop W7
  knopwed n knapweed W7
  knorre n knur W7
  knot n knot W7
  knucche/knytche n knitch IEW/W2I
  wed n weed W7
English: gnarl n hard tree proterbance with twisted grain W7
  gnarl vb to deform by twisting AHD/W7
  gnocchi flour/potato/semolina dumplings AHD
  knackwurst n short thick seasoned sausage AHD
  knap n summit, crest of hill AHD/W7
  knap vb.trans to rap, knock AHD/W7
  knapsack n canvas/leather bag/case strapped on back AHD/W7
  knapweed n weedy composite plant AHD/W7
  kna(u)r n knot/burl in tree/wood AHD
  knead vb.trans to work/press into mass with hands AHD/W7
  knell vb to ring/toll, esp. for death/funeral/disaster AHD/W7
  knife, knives n.str cutting tool(s): sharp blade(s) attached to handle(s) AHD/W7
  knit, knit vb.wk to tie together, esp. using needles AHD/W7
  knitch n.obs fagot, bundle IEW/W2I
  knob n lump, rounded protuberance AHD/W7
  knobkerrie n short club with knobbed end AHD
  knock vb to strike with sharp blow AHD/W7
  knoll n mound, small round hill AHD/W7
  knoll vb to knell AHD/W7
  knop n ornamental knob AHD/W7
  knot n thread/string/rope tied to form lump/knob AHD/W7
  knout n whip for flogging criminals AHD/W7
  knuckle n rounded prominence formed by ends of adjacent bones at joint AHD/W7
  knur n gnarl, hard excrescence AHD/W7
  knurl n knot, knob, small protuberance AHD
  Morgul-knife prop.n Nazgûl's knife in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Nob prop.n Bree hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  nub n knob, protuberance, small lump AHD
  quenelle n forcemeat ball/dumpling: seasoned paste of chopped veal/chicken/etc. AHD/CDC
Old Frisian: knap/knop n.masc knop, top ASD
Frisian: kniesen vb to bruise ASD
  knotte n knot ASD
  knyf n knife ASD
Middle Dutch: cnoppe n knob AHD
  knorre n knar AHD
Dutch: knappen vb to knap, eat W7
  knapzak n knapsack W7
  knēden vb to knead ASD
  kneuzen vb to bruise ASD
  knol n.masc knoll ASD
  knoop n button TLL
  knop n.masc knop, top ASD
  knot n.fem knot ASD
  knotten vb to tie in a knot ASD
Afrikaans: knopkierie n knobkerrie AHD
Middle Low German: knīf n knife W7
  knorre n knar AHD
  knubbe n knob W7
  knutten vb to tie RPN
Low German: knappsack n knapsack W7
Old High German: knetan vb to knead W7
  knoph n.masc knop, top ASD
  knoto/knodo n.masc knot W7/ASD
  knusjan/kimssan vb to beat, shake ASD
Middle High German: erknellen vb to toll W7
  knëten vb to knead ASD
  knillen/knüllen vb to beat ASD
  knoche n bone IEW
  knochen vb to press W7
  knöckel n knuckle W7
  knode/knote n.masc knot ASD
  knolle n knoll ASD
  knopf n.masc knop, top ASD
  knüs(s)en vb to push, beat ASD
New High German: knicken vb to fold, crack, snap RPN
  knütten vb.dial to knit RPN
German: knacken vb to crack AHD
  Knackwurst n knackwurst AHD
  knallen/knellen vb to knell ASD
  Kneif n.masc knife ASD
  kneten vb to knead ASD
  Knöchel n.masc knuckle LRC
  Knochen n.masc bone LRC
  Knolle(n) n.masc knoll ASD
  Knopf n.masc knop, button ASD
  knoten/knöten vb to tie in a knot ASD
  Knote(n) n.masc knot ASD
  knüssen vb to push, beat ASD
  Nußknacker n.masc nutcracker LRC
Old Norse: knifr n knife LRC
  knollr n mountaintop W7
  knúta n.fem knuckle-bone LRC
  knūtr n knot W7
Old Icelandic: kneikja vb to bend backwards with force RPN
  knytja vb to knit, tie together RPN
  knýta vb to knit, tie, bind RPN
Icelandic: knappr n.masc knop, top ASD
  knifr n.masc knife ASD
  knoða vb to knead ASD
  knosa vb to bruise, beat ASD
  knūtr n.masc knot ASD
  knylla vb to beat with a blunt weapon ASD
  knytja vb to knit together ASD
Danish: knalde vb to knell ASD
  knap n.masc/fem knop, top ASD
  knede vb to knead ASD
  kniv n.masc/fem knife ASD
  knokkel n bone, knuckle TLL
  knold n.masc/fem knoll ASD
  knude n.masc/fem knot ASD
  knuse vb to bruise ASD
  knytte vb to knit ASD
Swedish: knalla vb to make a noise ASD
  knapp n.masc knop, top ASD
  kneka vb to be bent RPN
  knif n.masc knife ASD
  knusa vb to bruise ASD
  knut n.masc knot ASD
  knyta vb to knit, tie ASD
  knöl n.masc knoll ASD
  knåda vb to knead ASD
Gothic: knussyan vb to press down ASD
Lithuanian: gniusti vb to press, contract W7/LD
Greek: γναμπτός adj bent, curved RPN
  γνάμπτω vb to bend RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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