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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. g̑en-, g̑enə-, g̑nē-, g̑nō-   'to bear, produce, generate'

Semantic Fields: to Bear (of Mother); to Do, Make


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: gainethar is born GED
  gein n.neut birth GED
Breton: genel vb to bear, give birth LRC
Welsh: gen(n)i vb to be born, give birth GED/RPN
Old English: cænnan/cynnan vb.wk.I to bear, beget, conceive, bring forth ASD
  cennan, cennede, cenned vb.wk.I to bear, beget, conceive, bring forth LRC
  cnōsl n.str.neut race GED
  cynd n kind, species; origin RPN
  cyne-rīce/cyne-rȳce n.neut kingdom GED/ASD
  cy(ni)ng n.masc king GED/ASD
  cynn n.neut kin(d), race, species; progeny GED/RPN
  mon(n)-cynn/man(n)-cynn n.neut mankind LRC
Middle English: alkyn adj of all kinds MEV
  benigne adj benign W7
  degenerat adj degenerate W7
  engendren vb to engender W7
  engin n engine W7
  gendre n gender W7
  gendren vb to gender, engender W7
  general adj general W7
  genital adj genital W7
  genitive adj genitive W7
  gent adj gent W7
  gentil adj gentle W7
  gentile n gentile W7
  gentrise, gentrie n gentry W7
  germain adj having the same parents W7
  innat adj innate W7
  kin n kin(dred) W7
  kinde n kind W7
  kindred n kindred W7
  king n king W7
  maligne adj malign W7
  malignen vb to malign W7
  mankunde/mankyn(de) n mankind MEV
  nacioun n nation W7
  natal adj natal W7
  natif adj native W7
  nature n nature W7
  pregnant adj pregnant W7
  progenie n progeny W7
  progenitor n progenitor W7
English: adnate adj grown fast to something different AHD/W7
  agnate adj/n related/relative on father's side AHD/W7
  allogeneic adj re: genetic dissimilarity AHD
  archegonium n flask-shaped egg-producing sex organ AHD/W7
  benign adj gracious, of gentle disposition AHD/W7
  cognate adj related by blood AHD/W7
  congener n member of same genus as another plant/animal AHD/W7
  congenial adj kindred, having same tastes/nature/disposition AHD/W7
  congenital adj existing at/dating from birth AHD/W7
  connate adj inborn, innate AHD/W7
  degenerate adj departed from proper quality AHD/W7
  dysgenic adj yielding offspring inferior to parent TLL
  enate n maternal female relative AHD
  endogenous adj grown from within TLL
  engender vb to beget, procreate AHD/W7
  engine n wile, ingenuity; agent; device AHD/W7
  epigone n imitative follower AHD/W7
  erogenous adj sexually sensitive AHD/W7
  eugenic adj yielding offspring superior to parent TLL
  eugenics n ethics/genetics re: producing superior offspring TLL
  -gen n.sfx producer AHD/W7
  gender n sex AHD/W7
  gender vb to engender AHD/W7
  gene n part of germ plasm transmitting hereditary characters AHD/W7
  general adj involving/applicable to whole AHD/W7
  generate vb.trans to bring into existence AHD/W7
  generation n offspring at same stage of descent AHD
  generic adj general, re: whole group/class AHD/W7
  generous adj highborn AHD/W7
  genesis n birth/origin/coming into being AHD/W7
  genial adj re: marriage/generation AHD/W7
  -genic adj.sfx that generates AHD/W7
  genital adj generative AHD/W7
  genitive adj (grammatical case) re: relationship of possessor/source AHD/W7
  genitor n one who creates/produces AHD
  geniture n birth, nativity AHD/W7
  genius n attendant spirit of person/place AHD/W7
  genocide n destruction of racial/cultural/political group AHD/W7
  genotype n type species, genetic constitution AHD/W7
  -genous adj.sfx that generates AHD/W7
  genre n sort, kind AHD/W7
  gens n Roman clan embracing families of same male stock AHD/W7
  gent adj pretty, graceful AHD/W7
  genteel adj stylish, having aristocratic quality AHD/W7
  gentile adj re: non-Jewish peoples AHD/W7
  gentile n person of non-Jewish faith/stock AHD/W7
  gentle adj re: family with high social status AHD/W7
  gentlehobbit n noble/gentle hobbit in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  gentleman n man of noble/gentle birth W7
  gentry n.obs qualities appropriate to person of gentle birth AHD/W7
  genuine adj true, actually having reputed/apparent character/qualities AHD/W7
  genus n class/group/kind characterized by common attribute(s) AHD/W7
  -geny n.sfx production, generation AHD/W7
  germ n part of living substance able to develop into whole AHD/W7
  german adj having same parents/grandparents on maternal/paternal side AHD/W7
  germane adj closely akin AHD/W7
  germinal adj re: earliest development stage AHD/W7
  germinate vb to cause to sprout/develop AHD/W7
  gingerly adj/adv careful/cautious; with care/delicacy AHD/W7
  gonad n testis, ovary, primary sex gland AHD/W7
  -gony n.sfx generation, reproduction, manner of birth AHD/W7
  heterogeneous adj mixed, consisting of dissimilar parts AHD/W7
  hormogonium n portion of cyanobacterium filament AHD
  impregnate vb.trans to make pregnant AHD/W7
  indigenous adj produced/growing/living naturally in region/environment AHD/W7
  indigent adj needy, impoverished AHD/W7
  ingenious adj showing/calling for intelligence AHD/W7
  ingenuous adj noble, honorable AHD/W7
  innate adj native, existing in/belonging to individual from birth AHD/W7
  jaunty adj genteel AHD/W7
  kin n clan, person(s) of common ancestry AHD/W7
  kind adj loving, gentle, friendly, affectionate W7
  kind n type, sort, nature AHD/W7
  kindergarten n young children's class/school AHD/W7
  kindred n relative(s), related individual(s) W7
  king n male monarch of major territorial unit AHD/W7
  kingsfoil n healing herb in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  malign adj injurious, evil in effect/nature/influence AHD/W7
  malign vb.trans to utter false/evil/misleading reports about AHD/W7
  mankind n human race, all human beings W7
  miscegenation n mixture of races AHD/W7
  Morgul-king prop.n Nazgûl king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  naive adj ingenuous, artless, marked by unaffected simplicity AHD/W7
  nascent adj re: being born/brought forth AHD/W7
  natal adj native, re: birth AHD/W7
  nation n nationality AHD/W7
  native adj innate, inborn AHD/W7
  nature n essence, inherent character/basic constitution AHD/W7
  nee adj re: identifying woman by maiden name AHD/W7
  neonatal adj re: newborn (human) infant W7
  neonate n newborn infant AHD
  Noel prop.n Christmas AHD
  noel n Christmas carol W7
  oncogenesis n tumor formation/development AHD
  pregnant adj gravid, containing unborn young AHD/W7
  primogenitor n ancestor, forefather AHD/W7
  primogeniture n firstborn of children of same parents AHD/W7
  progenitor n forefather, ancestor in direct line AHD/W7
  progeny n children, offspring, descendants AHD/W7
  puny adj weak, slight/inferior in size/power/importance AHD/W7
  renaissance n transition between medieval/modern times in Europe AHD/W7
  syngeneic adj genetically identical, closely related, immunologically compatible AHD
  wunderkind n child prodigy AHD/W7
Old Frisian: kanna/kenna vb to beget, conceive ASD
  kening/keneng/kini(n)g/koning n king ASD
  kenn/kinn n kin, race, generation GED
Frisian: kening n king ASD
  kinnen vb to beget, conceive ASD
Dutch: kind n.neut child ASD
  koning n.masc king ASD
  natuur n nature TLL
Old Saxon: cnōsal/knōsal n.str.neut race GED/ASD
  cuni(n)g/kuning n.masc king GED/ASD
  kennian vb to beget, conceive ASD
  kind n.str.neut child LRC
  kunni n race, generation GED
  man-kunni n mankind ASD
Old High German: chnōt/chnuot n.str.fem race GED
  chnuosal n.str.neut race GED
  chuning/kuning n.str.masc king GED
  chuni-rīche n kingdom GED
  chunni n.str.neut kin, kind, race, generation GED/RPN
  kannjan vb to beget, conceive ASD
  kind/kint n.str.neut child ASD
  knōsli/knuosli n.neut kin, race ASD
  man-chunni n.neut mankind ASD
Middle High German: kint n.neut child ASD
  künic/kün(e)c n.masc king ASD
German: Epigone n.masc follower, descendant W7
  Gen n.neut gene, factor W7
  Kind, Kinder n.neut child W7
  Kindergarten n.masc kindergarten W7
  Knösel n.masc little man ASD
  König n.masc king ASD
  Natur n.fem nature TLL
  Wunderkind n.neut child prodigy W7
Old Norse: kind n.fem child, offspring; race LRC
Old Icelandic: konungr n king GED
  kyn n.fem kin(d), race, species GED/RPN
  mann-kyn n.fem mankind ASD
Icelandic: kind n.fem kind, species ASD
  kōngr/konungr n.masc king ASD
Danish: kjende vb to beget, conceive ASD
  konge/konning n.masc king ASD
  natur n nature TLL
Swedish: ko(nu)ng/kung n.masc king ASD
  känna vb to beget, conceive ASD
  natur n nature TLL
Gothic: himinakunds adj heavenly LRC
  kindins n.str.masc governor LRC
  *knoþs n.fem race, kindred GED
  kuni n.neut kin(d), race, generation GED/RPN
  niuklahs adj young, childish LRC
Old Latin: genunt they beget GED
Latin: adgnascor, adgnascī, adgnatus vb.dep to grow on W7
  agnascor, agnascī, agnatus vb.dep to be born in addition to W7
  benignus adj kind, benign W7
  cognatus adj cognate, akin to W7
  congener n.masc son-in-law W7
  congenitus adj born with W7
  degenero, degenerare, degeneravi, degeneratus vb to degenerate W7
  generalis adj re: genre W7
  generō, generāre, generāvī, generātus vb to beget, generate W7
  generosus adj noble W7
  genialis adj bridal, of wedding, joyful W7
  genitalis adj of childbearing W7
  genitivus, genetivus adj genitive, of birth W7
  genitor n.masc begetter W7
  genitura n.fem birth, an engendering W7
  genius n.masc personal god W7
  genō, genāre vb to beget, give birth RPN
  gens, gentis n.fem clan, tribe, race, kindred group LRC
  gentilis adj re: same clan/nation W7
  genuinus adj native, genuine W7
  genus, generis n.neut race, birth, genus GED/RPN
  germanus adj germane, having same parents W7
  germen, germinis n.neut bud, germ, seed, shoot W7
  germinō, germināre, germināvī, germinātus vb to sprout W7
  gīgnō, genere, genuī, genitus vb to beget, produce, generate, give birth GED/RPN
  (g)nātus adj born GED
  -gonia sfx having sides W7
  indigena n.masc native (of the country) GED
  ingenero, ingenerare vb to engender W7
  ingeniosus adj talented W7
  ingenium n.neut natural disposition, talent W7
  ingens, ingentis adj great LRC
  ingenuus adj free, natural, noble W7
  innascor, innasci, innatus vb to be born in W7
  malignus adj malicious, mean W7
  nāscor, nāscī, nātus vb.dep to arise, be born/produced LRC
  natalis adj relating to birth, birthday W7
  nātiō, nātiōnis n.fem birth; race, nation LRC
  nativus adj of the birth W7
  natura n.fem nature W7
  naturalis, naturalis, naturale adj natural LRC
  praegnans, praegnantis adj pregnant, impregnated W7
  praegnas adj pregnant, impregnated W7
  progenies n.fem race, family, progeny LRC
  progenitor n.masc parent, ancestor, progenitor W7
  progigno, progignere, progenui, progenitus vb to beget, give birth to W7
  renascor, renasci vb.dep to be born again W7
  singulus, singula, singulum adj single, individual LRC
Late Latin: connascor, connasci, connatus vb.dep to be born together W7
  impraegnō, impraegnāre, impraegnāvī, impraegnātus vb to make pregant W7
  indigenus adj indigenous W7
  malignor, malignāri vb.dep to act maliciously W7
  primogenitor n.masc origin, first begetter W7
  primogenitura n.fem primogeniture, first begotten children W7
Medieval Latin: heterogen(e)us adj heterogeneous W7
New Latin: archegonium n.neut originator W7
  gonas, gonadis n.fem gonad W7
Old French: benigne adj benign AHD
  engin n.masc engine, machine W7
  gent n.fem gens; kind, clan, family W7
  gentil adj noble, courageous W7
  naïf adj inborn, natural W7
  progénie n.fem ascendance, family, lineage W7
Middle French: benigne adj benign, good-natured W7
  engendrer vb to engender W7
  gendre n.masc son-in-law W7
  gendrer vb to generate W7
  general adj general, re: kind W7
  genereus adj generous W7
  genre n.masc genre, gender W7
  germain adj kindred W7
  ingenieux adj clever, ingenious W7
  maligne adj.fem mean W7
  maligner vb to act maliciously W7
  natif adj native, re: birth W7
  nation n.fem nation W7
  nature n.fem nature W7
   vb.ptc born W7
  progéniteur n.masc progenitor W7
  puisné adj younger, born afterward W7
  renaissance n.fem rebirth W7
  renaistre vb to be born again W7
French: -gène adj.sfx act of bringing forth W7
  générique adj generic W7
  genre n.masc type, genre W7
  gentil adj nice, genteel W7
  germe n.masc germ, sprout W7
  germinal adj germinal, re: germination W7
  naître vb to be born W7
  naïve, naïf adj.fem naive W7
  né, née vb.ptc born W7
  Noël prop.n.masc Noel LRC
  noël n.masc noel LRC
  renaissance n.fem 2nd birth, 2nd coming into fashion W7
Lithuanian: gentìs n kinsman LRC
  žéntas n son-in-law LRC
Latvian: znuõts n.masc son-in-law, brother-in-law GED
Serbo-Croatian: zȅt n son-in-law, sister's husband LRC
Old Church Slavonic: zjatь n.masc bridegroom, son-in-law GED
  zętъ n son-in-law, sister's husband LRC
Greek: archegonos n.masc originator W7
  γενεή n.fem race, family, generation LRC
  -geneia afx being born W7
  γένεσις n.fem birth, source, origin, beginning LRC
  -genēs afx birth W7
  genikos adj genitive; re: birth W7
  γεννάω vb to beget, give birth LRC
  γένος n.neut birth, race, stock, kind GED/RPN
  γίγνομαι vb.dep to happen, become; arise, be born GED/RPN
  γνήσιος adj legitimate GED
  γνωτός n.fem brother, kinsman, well-known person GED
  -gonia afx birth W7
  γόνος n.masc/fem child, offspring, descendant GED
  epigignesthai vb to be born after W7
  epigonos n.masc successor W7
  heterogenēs adj heterogeneous W7
Armenian: cin n birth GED/RPN
  cnanim vb to beget, be born GED/RPN
Avestan: zan- vb to bear, beget, be born RPN
  zana- n people GED/RPN
  zāta adj born GED
  zayeite vb to be born LRC
  zīzənti they bear GED
Sanskrit: jánati vb to beget, create GED/RPN
  janáyati vb to bear, beget GED
  jánas- n.masc race, descent, lineage GED/RPN
  jātás adj born GED
  jñatiṣ n relative GED
  jñātás adj born GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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