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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. ger-   'to turn, wind, curl'

Semantic Fields: to Turn; to Wind, Wrap


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: grinne n bundle RPN
Irish: cairt n cart ASD
  crom adj bent ASD
Gaelic: cairt/cartach n.fem cart ASD
  creathail n.fem cradle ASD
Cornish: crom adj crooked ASD
Welsh: cart n cart ASD
  crwm adj bent ASD
Old English: cradol/cradel n.masc cradle W7/ASD
  cræft n.masc craft, strength, power ASD
  cræt/crat n cart W7/ASD
  crampiht adj crumpled, wrinkled RPN
  cranc- pfx crank W7
  cranc-stæf n.masc crank-staff (weaving implement) RPN
  crēopan, crēap, crupon, cropen vb.str to creep W7
  cribb n crib W7
  crin(c)gan, crong, crungon, crungen vb.str.III to cringe, yield; die ASD
  croc/crocc(a)/crog(g) n.masc crock, pitcher, pot/jar W7/ASD
  crop(p) n.masc crop W7/ASD
  cruma n.masc crumb W7/ASD
  crumb/crump adj bent, crooked RPN
  crūse n pitcher W7
  crycc n crutch W7
  crymban/crympan vb to bend, curl RPN
  crymbing n.fem bend, curvature, inclination RPN/ASD
  crypel n cripple W7
  cryppan vb to bend, to crook (finger) RPN
  dweomercræft n.masc magic art, jugglery OED
Middle English: carpen vb to carp W7
  cart n cart W7
  cradel n cradle W7
  craft n craft, strength W7
  crampe n cramp W7
  cranke n crank W7
  creke/crike n creek W7
  crengen vb to cringe W7
  crepen vb to creep W7
  crib n crib W7
  cripel n cripple W7
  crochet n crochet, crotchet W7
  crock n crock (pot/jar) W7
  croft n croft W7
  crok n crock (decrepit) W7
  croket n crocket W7
  crompid n crumpet, lit. curled-up W7
  crop n crop W7
  croser n crosier(-bearer) W7
  crouchen vb to crouch W7
  croupe n croup W7
  crucche n crutch W7
  cruet n cruet W7
  crul adj curly W7
  crumb/crump adj crooked W7
  crumme n crummy W7
  crumped vb.ptc curled up W7
  crumpen vb to curl up W7
  crumplen vb.freq to crumple W7
  cruper n crupper W7
  cruse n cruse W7
  crynkelen vb to crinkle W7
  curlen vb to curl W7
  encrochen vb to encroach W7
  grape n grape W7
  grapenel n grapnel W7
English: agraf(f)e n hook-and-loop fastener AHD/W7
  carp vb.intrans to find fault/complain querulously AHD/W7
  cart n 2-wheeled transport AHD/W7
  cradle n bed/cot for baby, usu. on pivots/rockers AHD/W7
  craft n art, skill, dexterity W7
  cramp n spasmodic painful involuntary muscle contraction AHD/W7
  cramp n metal device bent at ends to hold timbers/stone blocks together AHD/W7
  crank n arm (at right angles to axle/shaft end) imparting/receiving circular motion AHD/W7
  creche n day nursery AHD/W7
  creek n small inlet/bay, narrower but extending farther inland than cove AHD/W7
  creep, crept vb.wk.intrans to move with body prone/close to ground AHD/W7
  crib n manger for feeding animals AHD/W7
  Crickhollow prop.n Shire locale in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  crimp vb.trans to cause to become bent/warped/wavy AHD/W7
  cringe vb.intrans to contract/draw in one's muscles AHD/W7
  cringle n eyelet/grommet/thimble/rope loop attached to sail AHD/W7
  crinkle vb to form short bends/angles AHD/W7
  cripple n lame/partly disabled person/animal AHD/W7
  crochet n interlocking looped stitches formed with single thread/hooked needle AHD/W7
  crock n thick earthenware pot/jar AHD/W7
  crock n one that is decrepit/impaired/disabled/worn out AHD/W7
  crocket n ornament (bent/curved foliage) on edge of gable/spire AHD/W7
  croft n small enclosed field adjoining house AHD/W7
  crook n implement having bent/hooked form AHD/W7
  crop n swollen protuberance: bird's craw, sprout/top of herb AHD/OED
  croquet n lawn game played with mallets/wooden balls/wickets AHD/W7
  crosier n staff with pointed foot carried as symbol of office AHD/W7
  crotch n pole with forked end AHD/W7
  crotchet n brooch, small hook/hooked instrument AHD/W7
  crouch vb to stoop with limbs close to body AHD/W7
  croup n rump of quadruped AHD/W7
  croupier n gambling casino employee who pays/collects bets AHD/W7
  cruet n (glass) bottle for table condiments W7
  cruller n small sweet cake in twisted strips fried in deep fat AHD/W7
  crumb n small bread/pastry fragment AHD/W7
  crummie n cow AHD/W7
  crumpet n unsweetened cake batter cooked on griddle AHD/W7
  crumple vb to rumple, bend/press/crush out of shape AHD/W7
  crupper n leather loop under horse's tail buckled to saddle AHD/W7
  cruse n small vessel (e.g. pot/jar) to hold liquid (e.g. oil/water) AHD/W7
  crutch n device typically fitting under armpit used by disabled in walking AHD/W7
  curl vb to form into coils/ringlets AHD/W7
  dwimmer-crafty adj re: Saruman in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  encroach vb.intrans to take, by stealth/gradual steps, rights/possessions of another AHD/W7
  gooseberry n spiny European shrub with edible berries AHD
  grape n juicy smooth-skinned berry AHD/W7
  grapnel n small anchor with 3-5 flukes/claws AHD/W7
  grappa n dry colorless Italian brandy AHD/W7
  grapple n iron-clawed instrument used to secure enemy vessel before boarding AHD/W7
  grossularite n type of garnet AHD/W7
  group n two/more figures forming unit AHD/W7
  kreplach n small soup dumpling(s) AHD
  krumkake n Norwegian waffle cookie, lit. bent cake AHD
  krummhorn n double-reed woodwind, lit. bent horn AHD
Scots English: crumb adj bent, crooked W7
Old Frisian: crumb adj bent, stooping ASD
  kreft n craft, strength ASD
  kriapa vb to creep ASD
  krocha n.masc crock (pot/jar) ASD
Frisian: kreft n craft, strength ASD
  krippen vb to creep ASD
  kruwch n crock (pot/jar) ASD
Middle Dutch: crul adj curly W7
Dutch: kracht n.fem craft, strength ASD
  krampe n hook W7
  krat n.neut cart ASD
  krom adj bent, stooping ASD
  krop n.masc crop ASD
  kruik n.fem crock (pot/jar) ASD
  kruim n.fem crumb ASD
  kruipen vb to creep ASD
  krul adj curly W7
  krulle n twisted cake W7
Old Saxon: criepan vb to creep ASD
  crūka n.fem crock (pot/jar) ASD
  crumb adj bent, stooping ASD
  kraft n.masc craft, strength IEW/ASD
Low German: krampe n hook W7
  krimpen vb to shrivel W7
  kring n ring W7
  kringel n.dim cringle W7
Old High German: cratto n.masc cart ASD
  kraft n.fem craft, strength IEW/ASD
  krank adj weak KDW
  krāpfo n hook W7
  kratto n basket W7
  krippa n crib, manger W7
  kriuchan vb to creep ASD
  krōg n.masc crock (pot/jar) ASD
  krol adj curly W7
  kropf n.masc crop W7/ASD
  krucka n crutch W7
  krumb adj bent, stooping ASD
Middle High German: kraft n.fem craft, strength ASD
  kretze n.masc/fem cart ASD
  kriuchen vb to creep ASD
  kropf n.masc crop ASD
  krūche n crock W7
  krume n crumb W7
  krump adj bent, stooping ASD
  kruoc n.masc crock (pot/jar) ASD
German: Großularit n grossularite W7
  Kraft n.fem craft, strength ASD
  krank adj ill LRC
  Krankenhaus n hospital TLL
  krätze/kretze n.masc/fem cart ASD
  kriechen vb to creep ASD
  kropf n.masc crop ASD
  Krug n.masc crock (pot/jar) ASD
  Krume n.fem crumb ASD
  krumm adj bent, stooping ASD
Old Norse: kartr n cart W7
  kriki n bend; creek W7
  krjúpa vb to creep, crouch LRC
  krōkr n hook, barb W7
Old Icelandic: krá n nook, corner RPN
  kring adj round RPN
  kringja vb to encircle, to surround RPN
  kringr n circle, ring RPN
  kryppil n cripple RPN
  krœkja vb to hook RPN
Icelandic: karpa vb to dispute W7/IEO
  kartr n.masc cart ASD
  kraftr/kraptr n.masc craft, strength ASD
  krjupa vb to creep ASD
  kroppr n.masc crop ASD
  krukka n.fem crock (pot/jar) ASD
Norwegian: krokje n crock W7
Danish: kraft n.masc/fem craft, strength ASD
  kro n inn TLL
  krop n.masc/fem crop ASD
  krukke n.masc/fem crock (pot/jar) ASD
  krum adj bent, stooping ASD
  krumme n.masc/fem crumb ASD
  krybe vb to creep ASD
  omkring prep around TLL
Swedish: kraft n.masc craft, strength ASD
  kropp n.masc crop ASD
  kruka n.fem crock (pot/jar) ASD
  krum adj bent, stooping ASD
  krumma n.fem crumb ASD
  krypa vb to creep ASD
  omkring prep around TLL
Latin: grūmus n little heap, hillock (of earth) RPN
New Latin: Grossularia n.fem shrub genus incl. gooseberries W7
Old French: crape n.fem skin disease W7
  croc(he) n.masc fang, hook W7
  croupe n.fem croup W7
  crue n crock (pot/jar) W7
  crupiere n.fem lit. one (who rides) on (horse) croup W7
  encrochier vb to encroach W7
  grosele n gooseberry AHD
Old North French: croquet n.masc.dim crocket W7
Anglo-French: cruet n.dim cruet W7
Middle French: crochet n.masc.dim hook, crochet W7
  crossier n crosier W7
  encrochier vb to encroach W7
  grape n.fem hook W7
  grapin n.masc.dim grapnel, hook W7
  grapinel n.masc.dim grapnel, hook W7
  grappelle n.fem hook W7
French: agrafe n agrafe W7
  agrafer vb to hook onto AHD
  crèche n.fem creche, nursery W7
  crochet n.masc.dim hook, crochet W7
  croupe n.fem croup W7
  croupier n.masc croupier W7
  groupe n.masc group W7
Italian: grappa n grappa W7
Lithuanian: gárbana, garbanà n curl, lock, ringlet RPN
  grandìs n ring, link (of a fence) RPN
Greek: griphos n.masc reed basket W7
  γρῡπός n hook-nosed RPN
  grypos adj curved W7
Sanskrit: grathnā́mi vb to fasten, tie/string together RPN
  grantha, grathna-ḥ, granthí-ḥ n knot, tie, bunch, tuft W7
  grantháyati vb to fasten, tie/string togeth RPN
Prakrit: gaṁṭhi- n knot, joint, bundle RPN
  gaṁṭhilla- adj knotted RPN
  gaṁṭhaï, gaṁthaï vb to tie, knot RPN
Assamese: gā̃ṭhi- n knot, joint, protuberance RPN
  gā̃thiba- vb to string together RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEO=Arngrimur Sigurdsson: Íslenzk-Ensk Orðabók (1970)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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