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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑er-, g̑erə-, g̑rē-   'to rub; rotten; to age, ripen; grain'

Semantic Fields: to Rub; to Spoil; Grain (generic, British Corn)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ceorl n ceorl, carl, fellow W7
  corn n.neut corn LRC
  cyrin/ceren n.fem churn W7/ASD
  cyrn(e)l n kernel W7/ASD
Middle English: bred-corn n lit. bread-grain MEV
  carl n carl W7
  churl n churl W7
  chyrne n churn W7
  corn/curn n corn W7
  garner n garner W7
  garnett n garnet (tackle) W7
  grain n grain W7
  grange n grange W7
  grenat n garnet (semiprecious stone) W7
  kernel n kernel W7
  poumgarnet n pomegranate W7
English: ageratum n tropical American composite herb AHD/W7
  Carl prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  carl n common man (of the people) AHD/W7
  carling n part of ship deck framing AHD/W7
  Ceorl prop.n Rohan rider in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  ceorl n free man of lowest rank W7
  churl n ceorl AHD/W7
  churn n vessel for making butter IEW
  corn n grain, small hard seed AHD/W7
  einkorn n early cultivated single-grain wheat AHD
  filigree n ornamental work of fine gold/silver/copper wire AHD/W7
  garner n granary AHD/W7
  garnet n semiprecious stone: more/less transparent (red) silicate mineral AHD/W7
  garnet n tackle for lifting cargo on ship AHD/W7
  geriatric adj re: age/aging AHD/W7
  geront(o)- pfx old age AHD/W7
  grain n small hard seed(s) AHD/W7
  gram n leguminous plant grown esp. for seed AHD/W7
  granadilla n passionflower fruit AHD
  granary n place to store threshed grain AHD/W7
  grange n barn, granary AHD/W7
  grani- pfx grain, seeds AHD/W7
  granita n chipped ice with flavorings AHD
  granite n very hard, visibly crystalline igneous rock AHD/W7
  granule n small particle AHD/W7
  grenade n container fitted with priming/bursting charges AHD/W7
  grenadine n plain/figured open-weave fabric AHD/W7
  kernel n fruit seed AHD/W7
  pomegranate n thick-skinned reddish berry with many seeds in crimson pulp AHD/W7
British English: corn n maize; (organic) granule GED
Scots English: curn n corn W7
Old Frisian: korn n corn ASD
  tzerle/tzirle n man ASD
Frisian: tzsierl n man ASD
Dutch: karel n.masc carl ASD
  kern n.fem kernel ASD
  kōren n.neut corn ASD
Old Saxon: korn(i)/kurni n.neut corn ASD
Old High German: char(a)l n.masc carl ASD
  kerno n.masc kernel ASD
  korn n corn GED
Middle High German: kerl n.masc carl ASD
  kërn(e) n.masc kernel ASD
  korn n.neut corn ASD
German: Einkorn n.neut einkorn, lit. single-grain LRC
  Kerl n.masc carl ASD
  Kern n.masc kernel ASD
  Korn n.neut corn, cereal ASD
Old Norse: kerling n carling, lit. old woman W7
  korn n corn W7
Old Icelandic: karl n carl, (old) man RPN
Icelandic: karl n.masc carl ASD
  kjarni n.masc kernel ASD
  korn n.neut corn ASD
Danish: kjerne n.masc/fem kernel ASD
  korn n.neut corn ASD
Old Swedish: krootas vb to break to pieces GED
Swedish: korn n.neut corn ASD
  kärna n.fem kernel ASD
Gothic: *ga-kroton vb.wk.II to break to pieces GED
  kaurn(o) n.neut corn GED/ASD
Crimean Gothic: *korn/kor n corn CGo
Latin: glārea n.fem sand, gravel GED
  granarium n.neut granary W7
  granata n.fem pomegranate W7
  granatus vb.ptc seedy W7
  grānum n.neut grain, seed, kernel GED
Late Latin: granulum n.neut.dim small grain W7
Medieval Latin: granica n.fem grange W7
New Latin: Ageratum n.masc genus of herbs W7
Portuguese: grão n.masc grain W7
Old French: grenier n.masc granary W7
Old North French: calingue n.fem old woman W7
Middle French: grain n.masc cereal grain W7
  graine n.fem grain, seed W7
  grange n.fem barn W7
  grenade n.fem grenade; pomegranate W7
  grenat adj/n.masc (re:) precious stone, red like pomegranate W7
French: carlingue n.fem keelson W7
  filigrane n.masc filigree W7
  grenade n.fem grenade; pomegranate W7
  grenadine n.fem grenadine W7
Italian: filigrana n.fem filigree, watermark W7
  granire vb to granulate W7
  granito adj seeded, full of grain W7/CID
  grano n.masc grain W7
Lithuanian: žìrnis n pea GED
Old Church Slavonic: zrělъ adj ripe RPN
  zrěti vb to ripen, mature GED/RPN
Greek: agēratos adj ageless W7
  γεραιός adj old RPN
  γέρων adj/n.masc old; old man GED/RPN
  γῆρας n.neut old age RPN
  γηράω vb to grow old GED
Armenian: cer adj old RPN
Avestan: zar- vb to grow old, waste away RPN
Sanskrit: grā́vā n grindstone GED
  jára-ḥ adj becoming old, wearing out RPN
  jaraṇá-ḥ adj old, decayed RPN
  járat- adj old; worn; dry (herbs) RPN
  járati vb to grow old, wear out RPN
  járant- adj old, sickly GED
  jarā́ n old age RPN
  jīrṇá-ḥ/jūrṇá-ḥ adj old, worn out, withered RPN
  jīryati vb to become feeble GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
MEV=J.R.R. Tolkien: A Middle English Vocabulary (1922)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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