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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: gēu-, gəu-, gū-   'to bend, curl; cup, vessel'

Semantic Fields: to Bend; Cup; Jug, Pitcher


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: āttorcoppa/āttercoppe/āt(t)orcoppe n.fem attercop, lit. venom-spider OED/ASD
  cicen n.neut chicken W7/ASD
  cofa n.masc cove, closet RPN/ASD
  copp n.masc cup, goblet; peak, summit IEW
  coppa n spider OED
  cupp n.masc cup, goblet IEW
  cuppe n.fem cup, goblet W7/ASD
  cycgel n cudgel W7
  cȳf(e) n.fem tub, vat, cask RPN/ASD
  cȳfl n tub, bucket RPN
  *cȳpe n kipe IEW
Middle English: attercop(pe) n attercop CDC
  chiken n chicken W7
  coppeweb n cobweb W7
  cove n cove, den W7
  cuppe n cup W7
  kuggel n cudgel W7
  kype n kipe W2I
English: Attercop prop.n epithet for spider in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  attercop n (poisonous) spider OED
  chicken n common domestic fowl IEW/W7
  Cob prop.n epithet for spider in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  cob n spider; head, round clump IEW
  cobweb n lit. spider web W7
  cove n chamber, cavity, recessed place IEW/W7
  cub n young carnivorous mammal IEW/W7
  cudgel n short heavy club IEW/W7
  cup n small bowl-shaped drinking vessel W7
  kipe n osier basket, plaited fish trap IEW/W2I
  kyte/kite n belly, stomach, abdomen IEW/W2I
Scots English: ettercap n attercop CDC
Old Frisian: kopp n cup, goblet IEW
Dutch: kieken/kuiken n.neut chicken ASD
  kuip n.fem tub ASD
  kuit n calf (of leg) TLL
Old Saxon: cōpa n.fem cup, vat, vessel ASD
Middle Low German: kopp n cup, goblet IEW
Old High German: kopf/chuph n cup, goblet IEW
  kuofa n.fem cup, vat, vessel ASD
Middle High German: kobe n stable, pigsty RPN
  kuofe n.fem vessel ASD
German: Dummkopf n.masc dummkopf, blockhead, simpleton LRC
  Kopf n.masc head IEW
  Kufe n.fem cup, vessel ASD
Old Norse: koddi n cushion KNW
Old Icelandic: kofi n hut, shed RPN
  kúfóttr adj convex RPN
Icelandic: kūpa n.fem bowl, box, basin ASD
Danish: edderkop n attercop CDC
  kippe/kyper n.masc/fem dyer's tub ASD
  kylling n chicken ASD
  ædder-cop n cup of poison, lit. atter-cup ICE
Swedish: kudde n cushion SAO/TLL
  kupa n.fem case, box ASD
  kyckling n.masc chicken ASD
  kyp n.masc dyer's tub ASD
Latin: cupa n.fem cask, vat, vessel ASD
Late Latin: cuppa n.fem cup W7
Middle Latin: cuppa n.fem cup, vat, vessel ASD
Spanish: cuba n.fem cask for wine/oil ASD
French: cuve n.fem vat, vessel ASD
Greek: γύπη n cave, den, hole RPN
  γῡρεύω vb to run around in a circle RPN
  γῦρος n ring, circle RPN
  γῡρός adj round RPN
Sanskrit: gulī n globe, pill RPN
  gola-ḥ n globe, ball, ball-shaped jar RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
SAO=Swedish Academy: Svenska Akademiens Ordbok (2011)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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