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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑hðem-, g̑hðom-, genitive-ablative g̑h(ð)m-és   'earth, ground, soil, humus'

Semantic Fields: Earth, Land; Ground, Soil


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: duine n person, human being GED/RPN
   n place GED/RPN
Welsh: dyn n human being GED
Old English: brȳd(i)-guma n.masc bridegroom GED/ASD
  guma n.wk.masc man, human being GED
Middle English: bridegome n bridegroom W7
  camelion n chameleon W7
  homage n homage W7
  homicide n homicide W7
  humain adj human, humane W7
  humble adj humble W7
English: autochthon n one supposedly sprung from ground he inhabits AHD/W7
  autochthonous adj native, indigenous, aboriginal W7
  bonhomie n geniality, good-natured easy friendliness AHD/W7
  bridegroom n man newly married/about to be married AHD/W7
  chamaephyte n perennial plant bearing winter buds near soil AHD/W7
  chameleon n Old World lizard with unusual ability to change skin color AHD/W7
  chamomile n aromatic perennial European herb AHD
  chernozem n dark-colored zonal soil having deep rich humus AHD/W7
  chthonic adj infernal AHD/W7
  exhume vb.trans to disinter, dig up AHD/W7
  homage n ceremony where one acknowledges vassalship to lord AHD/W7
  hombre n guy, fellow AHD/W7
  homicide n one who kills another person AHD/W7
  hominid n bipedal primate mammal: mankind/immediate ancestors/related forms AHD/W7
  homo n primate mammal: mankind as single recent species AHD/W7
  homunculus n.dim manikin, little man AHD/W7
  human adj/n (re:) man, mankind AHD/W7
  humane adj marked by sympathy/compassion/consideration for others AHD/W7
  humble adj not proud/haughty, not arrogant/assertive AHD/W7
  humiliate vb.trans to mortify, reduce to lower social position AHD/W7
  humility n being humble AHD/W7
  humus n brown/black material resulting from plant/animal decomposition AHD/W7
  inhume vb.trans to bury, inter AHD/W7
  ombre n 3-handed card game AHD/W7
  omerta n rule/code enforcing silence AHD
  sierozem n zonal group of soils characteristic of cool/temperate arid regions AHD/W7
  transhumance n seasonal livestock movement between mountain/lowland pastures AHD/W7
  zemstvo n local elective assembly in czarist Russia AHD/CDC
Old Frisian: breid-goma n.wk.masc bridegroom GED
  goma n man, human being ASD
Old Saxon: brūdi-gumo n.masc bridegroom GED
  gumo n.wk.masc man, human being GED/RPN
Old High German: brūti-gomo n.masc bridegroom GED
  gom(m)en/go(u)m-man/gam-man n.wk.masc man, human being GED/RPN
  gomo/goma n.wk.masc man, human being GED/RPN/ASD
Middle High German: gome n.wk.masc man, human being GED
German: Bräutigam n.masc bridegroom GED
Old Norse: gumi n.wk.masc man, human being LRC
Old Icelandic: Gymir prop.n.masc (name of) a giant GED
Gothic: guma n.masc man, human being GED/RPN
  *guma-kunds adj male GED
Umbrian: hondra adv below GED
Old Latin: hemōnem n.acc man, human being GED
Latin: autochthones autochthon CDC
  chamaeleon n.masc chameleon W7
  exhumo, exhumāre vb to unearth W7
  homicida n.masc murderer W7
  homicidium n.neut murder, killing W7
  homo, hominis n.masc man, human being LRC
  homunculus n.masc small man W7
  humanus adj human W7
  humilis, humilis, humile adj low, small, humble LRC
  humus n earth, ground, soil GED/RPN
  inhumo, inhumare vb to bury W7
Late Latin: humilio, humiliāre, humiliavi, humiliatus vb to humiliate W7
New Latin: Homo, Hominis n.masc genus name for mankind W7
Portuguese: homem n man, human TLL
Spanish: hombre n.masc man, human W7
  ombre n.masc old 3-handed card game W7
  trashumar vb to practice transhumance W7
Old French: hommage n.masc homage W7
  homme n.masc man, human, vassal W7
  humble adj low, humble W7
Middle French: camelion n.masc chameleon W7
  homicide n.masc homicide, killing of a man W7
  humain adj human W7
French: bonhomie n.fem bonhomie, friendly attitude (for a man) W7
  bonhomme n.masc good-natured man W7
  exhumer vb to unearth W7
  homme n.masc man, human W7
  inhumer vb to inhume W7
  transhumance n.fem transhumance W7
  transhumer vb to practice transhumance W7
Italian: omertà n omerta LRC
  uomo n man, human TLL
Old Prussian: semme n earth GED
  smoy n man GED
  smunents n human being GED
Old Lithuanian: žmuõ n person, human being RPN
Lithuanian: žẽmė n.fem earth LRC
  žmogùs n.masc person, human being LRC
  žmónės n.masc people LRC
  žmuõ n human beings GED
Latvian: zem prep under, beneath LRC
  zeme n.fem land, country LRC
Old Church Slavonic: zemlja n earth GED/RPN
  mǫžь n.masc man, husband LRC
Old Russian: zemĭ n land AHD
Russian: zemlya n earth W7
  zemstvo n zemstvo AHD
  seryĭ adj gray W7
  chernozem n chernozem W7
Albanian: dhe n earth, land GED/RPN
Greek: αὐτό-χθων adj autochthonous, of this earth LRC
  αὐτό-χθων n.neut autochthon, primitive inhabitant LS
  chamai adv on the ground W7
  chamaileōn n.masc chameleon W7
  χθόνιος adj earthly, in/under/beneath the earth GED
  χθών n.fem earth, ground; land, country RPN
Luwian: ti-ya-am-mi-iš n earth RPN
Hieroglyphic Luwian: takami- n earth, land RPN
Hittite: da-ga-(a-)an adv to the ground RPN
  te-(e-)kán n earth, ground RPN
Avestan:  n earth, ground GED
Sanskrit: kṣámyas adj earthly GED
  kṣā́s n earth, ground GED/RPN
Tocharian B: kan/keṃ n earth, ground GED/RPN
  śaumo n human being GED
Tocharian A: śom n youth GED
  śomin n girl GED
  tkaṃ n earth, ground GED/RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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