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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. g̑hē- : ghə-, and g̑hēi- : g̑hī-   'to gape, yawn'

Semantic Field: to Gape, Yawn


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: for-gǣgan vb.wk to infringe, take wrong direction GED
  gagol/gægl/geagl adj excessive, unrestrained GED/ASD
  gīnan vb.str to gape, yawn GED/ASD
  ginian/geonian/gynian vb.wk to yawn W7/ASD
  gi(o)wian/giwan vb.wk to desire, demand IEW/ASD
Middle English: gap n gap W7
  gapen vb to gape W7
  gaspen vb to gasp W7
  gigg n top: spinning toy W7
  gille n gill W7
  whirlegigg n whirligig W7
  yanen vb to yawn W7
English: achene n small dry indehiscent single-seeded fruit AHD/W7
  chasm n gorge, deep cleft in earth AHD/W7
  chasmogamous adj re: flower that opens for pollination AHD
  chasmogamy n opening of perianth at flower maturity AHD
  dehisce vb.intrans to split along natural line AHD/W7
  gap n break in wall/hedge/line of military defense AHD/W7
  gape vb.intrans to open mouth wide AHD/W7
  gasp vb to catch breath with shock/other emotion AHD/W7
  gibe/jibe vb to mock, deride, ridicule IEW
  gig n light boat/carriage IEW
  giggle vb to laugh secretly/mockingly IEW
  gill n ravine, narrow stream/rivulet AHD/W7
  Gilrain prop.n Gondor river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hiatus n gap, break in object AHD/W7
  lammergeier n Europe's largest bird of prey AHD/W7
  whirligig n child's whirling toy IEW/W7
  yawn vb to gape, open wide AHD/W7
Scots English: ghyll n gill ICE
Old Frisian: gēie n penance GED
Old High German: gīēn vb.wk to yawn GED
  ginēn/g(e)inōn vb.wk to yawn GED
German: gaffen vb to gape, yawn TLL
  gähnen vb to yawn LRC
  Lämmergeier n lammergeier W7
Old Norse: gap n.neut gap, hole, chasm LRC
  gapa vb to gape, yawn W7
  geigr n.masc serious injury LRC
  geispa vb to yawn W7
  gil n.neut gill, deep narrow glen with stream W7/ICE
Old Icelandic: geiga vb.wk to take wrong direction GED
  geigr n.masc serious harm GED
  gīna vb to gape GED
  gjā n ravine, cleft in earth GED
Icelandic: gīna vb to yawn ASD
Latin: dehisco, dehiscere vb to split open W7
  hio, hiāre, hiavi, hiatus vb to gape, yawn, crack open W7
  hisco, hiscere vb to gape, open W7
New Latin: achaenium n.neut achene W7
Lithuanian: žióju vb to yawn GED
Old Church Slavonic: zěją vb to yawn GED
Greek: χαίνω vb to yawn, gape, (crack) open GED
Sanskrit: jéhamānas adj gaping, yawning GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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