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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghedh-, ghodh-   'to join, unite, gather, make a bond'

Semantic Fields: to Join, Unite; to Bind


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gada n companion, associate RPN
  gad(e)rian/gad(o)rigean vb.wk to gather, collect, store up RPN/ASD
  gaderung n.fem assembly RPN/ASD
  gaderwist n companionship RPN
  gadrigendlic/gaderigendlīc adj collective RPN/ASD
  gæd n.neut fellowship RPN/ASD
  gædeling n.masc kinsman, comrade, companion GED/RPN
  gædere, gadere, geador adv together W7
  gæd(e)rian vb to gather GED/ASD
  geador adv together GED
  (ge-)gada n comrade GED
  gōd adj good, excellent LRC
  tō-gædere adv together GED/RPN
Middle English: gaderen vb to gather W7
  good adj good W7
  togedere adv together W7
English: gather vb to collect, bring together AHD/W7
  good adj of favorable character/tendency AHD/W7
  Goodbody prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  together adv in(to) one place/mass/group/collection AHD/W7
Scots English: gadyr vb to gather ASD
Old Frisian: gad(e)ria/ga(du)ria vb.wk to gather, unite GED/ASD
  gadia vb to gather, unite GED/RPN
  gadur adv together GED/RPN
  gōd adj good ASD
  tō-gadera adv together ASD
Frisian: gearjen vb to gather ASD
Middle Dutch: gaden vb to please GED
  gaderen vb to unite, come together RPN
Dutch: gaderen vb to gather ASD
  goed adj good TLL
Flemish: gaden vb to please GED
Old Saxon: gaduling/garaling n.str.masc relative GED/ASD
  gi-gado n one's equal GED
  gōd adj good ASD
Middle Low German: gad(d)eren vb.wk to unite GED
  gaden vb to please GED
  gader adv together GED
Low German: gad(d)ern vb to gather ASD
Old High German: be-gatōn vb.wk to unite, come together GED/RPN
  gatiling/gataling n.str.masc relative GED/RPN/ASD
  ge-gat adj joined GED
  guot adj good W7
Middle High German: gater adv together GED
  gatern/getern vb.wk to unite GED/ASD
  (ge-)gate n.wk.masc spouse GED
  geteling n.masc fellow, relation ASD
German: Gatte n.masc spouse LRC
  gattern vb to gather ASD
  Gattin n.fem wife, spouse, consort TLL
  gut adj good ASD
  Güte n.fem goodness, kindness TLL
Old Norse: góðr adj good LRC
Danish: god adj good TLL
Swedish: god adj good TLL
Gothic: gadiliggs n.masc cousin GED/RPN
  gōðr adj good ASD
  gōds/gōþs adj good LRC
Crimean Gothic: *gadelþa/gadeltha adj beautiful GED/CGo
Lithuanian: goda n honor GED
Latvian: gads n.masc year LRC
  gùodât vb to hold in honor GED
  gùods n honor, glory GED
Old Church Slavonic: gadati vb to believe GED
  godina n.fem time, hour LRC
  godъ n (favorable) time GED/RPN
  ugobьziti, ugobьžǫ, ugobьziši vb to yield richly LRC
  ugoditi, ugoždǫ, ugodiši vb to please, be pleasing LRC
Sanskrit: gadh- vb to cling, hold fast, hang on to GED/RPN
  gádhya-ḥ adj seized/gained as booty RPN
Tokharian: kātk- vb to rejoice GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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