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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghel-tō, Germanic and ghel-dhō Slavic   'to cost, pay, be worth'

Semantic Fields: Cost, Expense; to Pay


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: g(i)eld/gild/gyld n.neut geld, tribute, service W7/ASD
  gieldan, geald, guldon, golden vb.str.III to yield, pay LRC
Middle English: gilde n guild W7
  yielden vb to yield W7
English: Danegeld prop.n English tax for forces opposing Danes AHD/CDC
  geld n (tax) payment to king AHD/W7
  gelt n money AHD/W7
  guild n association with kindred pursuits/common aims/interests AHD/W7
  wergeld/weregild n recompense, rank-based price set on person's life AHD/OED
  yield vb to reward, recompense AHD/W7
Old Frisian: jeld n.neut geld, tribute, service ASD
Dutch: geld n geld, money W7
Old Saxon: geld n.neut geld, tribute, service ASD
Old High German: gelt n.neut geld, tribute, service ASD
  geltan vb to yield, pay W7
German: Geld n.neut geld, money W7
  gelten vb to yield, count, apply, be valid LRC
Yiddish: gelt n geld, money W7
Old Norse: gildi n.neut guild; geld, tribute, recompense LRC
  gjald n.neut geld LRC
  gjalda vb to yield, (re)pay, redeem, requite LRC
Icelandic: gildi/gjald n.neut geld, tribute, service ASD
Gothic: gild n.neut geld, tribute, service ASD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
III=class 3
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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