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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. g̑her-   'to desire, yearn for'

Semantic Field: to Desire


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: dōm-georn adj lit. glory-desirous LRC
  giernan vb to yearn W7
  grǣd n.masc greed GED
  grǣdig adj greedy GED
  lof-georn adj eager for praise LRC
Middle English: eukarist n Eucharist W7
  exhorten vb to exhort W7
  gredy adj greedy W7
  yernen vb to yearn W7
English: catachresis n use of wrong word for context AHD/W7
  charisma n extraordinary power (e.g. of healing) AHD/W7
  chresard n water (in soil) available to plants AHD
  Eucharist prop.n Christian sacrament/ceremony of Holy Communion LRC
  exhort vb to incite by advice/argument AHD/W7
  greed n avarice, rapacity LRC
  greedy adj having strong desire for food/drink AHD/W7
  hortative adj advisory, giving exhortation AHD/W7
  yearn vb.intrans to feel longing/craving AHD/W7
Dutch: graag adj hungry GED
Old Saxon: grādag adj greedy GED
Old High German: gerōn vb to desire W7
  grātag adj greedy GED
  grātida n.fem zeal GED
  lob-gerni adj desirous of praise ASD
Old Norse: grið peace, protection LRC
Old Icelandic: grāðr n.masc greed GED
  grāðugr adj greedy GED
Icelandic: grāðr n greed, hunger ASD
  grāðugr adj greedy ASD
  lof-gjarn adj desirous of praise ASD
Gothic: grēdags adj hungry LRC
  gredags adj hungry GED
  *gredon vb.wk.II to hunger GED
  *gredus n.masc hunger GED
Latin: exhortor, exhortārī vb.dep to exhort, encourage W7
  hortor, hortāri, hortātus vb.dep.freq to urge, incite, encourage W7
Late Latin: eucharistia n.fem Eucharist W7
  hortativus adj quality of a speech meant to urge W7
Middle French: euchariste n.fem Eucharist W7
  exhorter vb to exhort W7
Lithuanian: gardhùs adj tasty GED
Latvian: gar̃ds adj tasty GED
Greek: eucharistos adj grateful W7
  katachrēsthai vb to use up, misuse W7
  katachrēsis n.fem misuse W7
  συγχαίρω vb to rejoice with LRC
  χαίρω vb to rejoice LRC
  χαρά n.fem joy LRC
  charizesthai vb to favor W7
  charis n.fem grace, gratitude W7
  charisma n.neut gift, favor W7
  chrēsthai vb to use W7
Sanskrit: gardhas n greed GED
  gŕ̥dhyati vb to desire GED
  gṛdhnuṣ adj greedy; swift GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
freq=frequentative (aspect)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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