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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. g̑her-, and g̑herə-, g̑hrē-   'to beam, shine, shimmer'

Semantic Field: to Shine, Glisten

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Middle Irish: gerr adj short RPN
  gerraim vb to shorten, cut off RPN
English  
Old English: grǣg/grēg adj gray W7/ASD
  grǣg-hama adj/n.wk.masc gray-coated (one, i.e. wolf) ASD
Middle English: ambregris n ambergris W7
  gray adj re: color gray W7
  grisel adj grizzled W7
English: ambergris n waxy substance floating in tropical waters AHD/W7
  gray adj re: color gray AHD/W7
  greige adj undyed, unbleached AHD/W9
  Greyflood prop.n Eriador river in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Greyhame prop.n epithet for Gandalf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  greyhound n tall slender dog (breed): swift, graceful, smooth-coated AHD/W7
  grisaille n gray monochrome painting AHD/W7
  griseofulvin n antibiotic for fungal infections AHD/W9
  griseous adj grizzled, mottled in color AHD/W7
  grisette n young working-class woman AHD/W7
  grison n gray S American carnivore AHD
  grizzle n gray hair AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old Frisian: grē adj gray ASD
Old High German: crisil adj gray AHW
  grāo/grāw adj gray W7/ASD
German: grau adj gray ASD
N-Germanic  
Icelandic: grār adj gray ASD
Italic  
Old French: gris adj gray AHD
Middle French: gris/grisel adj gray W7
French: grisaille n grisaille W7
  grisette n grisette W7
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: zьrěti, zьr'jǫ, zьriši vb to see LRC
Indic  
Sanskrit: hrásati vb to become short/small RPN
  hrasvá-ḥ adj short, small RPN

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
prop=proper
vb=verb
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
AHW=Rudolf Schützeichel: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch (1981)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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