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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: g̑herdh-, and gherdh-   'to gird, enclose, encompass'

Semantic Fields: to Shut, Close; Circle


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: gort n seeded field LRC
Old English: geard n.masc yard, fence, enclosure LRC
  gyrdan/girdan vb.wk to gird RPN/ASD
  gyrdel(l) n.masc belt, girdle GED/RPN
  ortgeard n.masc orchard W7/ASD
Middle English: gardin n garden W7
  garth n garth W7
  girdel n girdle W7
  girden vb to strike, thrust W7
  girten vb to girt W7
  girth/gerth n girth W7
  orchard n orchard W7
  yard n yard, enclosure W7
English: Asgard prop.n realm of Aesir (Norse mythology) LRC
  Bracegirdle prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  garden n plot of ground for cultivating herbs/fruits/flowers/vegetables AHD/W7
  garth n small yard/enclosure AHD/W7
  gird, girt vb.wk to encircle/bind with flexible band AHD/W7
  girdle n garment that encircles/confines AHD/W7
  girt vb to gird AHD/W7
  girth n band/strap around animal's body for fastening things on back AHD/W7
  Isengard prop.n Saruman's fortress in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  jardiniere n ornamental plant/flower stand AHD/W7
  kindergarten n young children's class/school AHD/W7
  Midgard prop.n world inhabited by humans (Germanic mythology) LRC
  orchard n garden of fruit/nut trees AHD/W7
  Treegarth prop.n Ent/Huorn enclosure in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  yard n court, small area open to sky/adjacent to building AHD/W7
Old Frisian: garda n.masc yard, garden ASD
  gerda vb to gird LRC
  gerdel n girdle GED
Middle Dutch: gherde n girdle GED
Dutch: gærd(e) n yard, garden ASD
  gordel n girdle TLL
Old Saxon: gard n.masc yard, garden ASD
Middle Low German: gorde n girdle GED
Old High German: gart(o) n.masc garden, enclosure W7/ASD
  gurten vb to gird RPN
  gurtil n.str.masc girdle GED
  gurtila n.fem girdle GED
Middle High German: garte n.masc yard, garden ASD
  gurt n.str.masc girdle GED
German: Garten n.masc garden W7
  Gürtel n.masc girdle, belt ASD
  gürten vb to gird ASD
  Kindergarten n.masc kindergarten W7
Old Norse: āsgarðr n Asgard W7
  garðr n.masc yard, enclosure; fence LRC
  gjörþ n girth W7
  mið-garðr n.masc Midgard, lit. middle-yard, middle-earth W7
Old Icelandic: gjǫrð n.fem girdle GED
  gyrða vb to gird (with a belt) RPN
  gyrðill n girdle RPN
Icelandic: garðr n.masc yard, garden ASD
  gyrða vb to gird ASD
  gyrðill n.masc purse, girdle ASD
Danish: gaard n.masc/fem yard, garden ASD
Swedish: gård n.masc yard, garden ASD
Gothic: aurti-gards n orchard ASD
  *bi-gairdan vb.str.III to gird (about) GED/RPN
  gairda n.fem girdle GED/RPN
  gards n.str.masc house, household LRC
  midjun-gards n.str.masc Midgard, lit. middle-yard, middle-earth LRC
  *uf-gairdan vb to gird up GED/RPN
Oscan: heriiad let him capture! GED
Latin: urbs, urbis n.fem city LRC
French: jardinière n.fem female gardener; suspended pot for plants W7
Lithuanian: gar̃das n fence; enclosure RPN
Polish: gród n castle, palace LRC
Czech: hrad n castle, palace LRC
Serbo-Croatian: grâd n castle, palace LRC
Old Church Slavonic: gradъ n.masc city, fortification LRC
  gradьcь n.masc town, garden LRC
Bulgarian: gradъ n castle, palace LRC
Russian: gorod n town, city AHD
  -grad n.sfx city AHD
Albanian: dorë n hand GED
  gardh/garth n hedge GED/RPN
Hesychius' Greek Lexicon: κορθις n heap LRC
Greek: χείρ n hand GED
Hittite: gurtas n fortress, fortification LRC
Armenian: jeṙn n hand GED
Avestan: gərəða- n house, dwelling; inhabited cave LRC
Sanskrit: gṛhá-ḥ n house, dwelling GED/RPN
  hárati vb to take GED
Tocharian B: šar n hand GED
Tocharian A: tsar n hand GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
III=class 3
fem=feminine (gender)
imp=imperative (mood)
masc=masculine (gender)
sg=singular (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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