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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghleu-   'to be happy, joyful, gleeful'

Semantic Fields: Happy; Happiness; Glad, Joyful


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: glēam n.masc joy, joyous noise, jubilation IEW/ASD
  glēo/gleow n.neut glee, music, entertainment ASD
  glēoman n.masc gleeman AHD
  glīw/glig(g) n.neut glee, jesting, minstrelsy RPN/ASD
Middle English: glee n glee W7
  gleman n gleeman AHD
English: glee n joy, mirth, merriment AHD/W7
  gleeful adj merry, lit. full of glee W7
  gleeman n minstrel, medieval itinerant singer AHD
  Gléowine prop.n Theoden's minstrel in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
Scots English: glamer n noise ICE
Old Norse: glȳ n.neut glee W7/ASD
Old Icelandic: glam n.masc noise, tinkling sound, clash of weapons ICE
  glaumr n.masc merry noise, noisy jubilation; host, crowd ICE/IEW
  gleyma vb to make gleeful noise IEW
  glymja vb to sound, resound IEW
  glymr n din, noise, racket IEW
Old Lithuanian: glaudas/glauda n.masc/fem pastime, diversion IEW
  gláudoti vb to joke, jest, banter IEW
Latvian: glaudât vb to joke, jest, banter IEW
Greek: διαχλευάζω vb to joke, mock LRC
  chleuē n joke W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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