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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghoilo-s   'foaming, turbulent, frothing up'

Semantic Field: Wave, Surge


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: gāel n relationship GED
Welsh: gaol n love GED
Old English: gāl adj gole, gay, joyous; greedy ASD
  gāl-mōd adj wanton, licentious, light-minded ASD
  wīn-gāl adj intoxicated, lit. wine-gay LRC
English: Gálmód prop.n Grima's father in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  gole adj merry, lusty, wanton, licentious, lascivious OED
Dutch: geil adj gole ASD
  gijl n beer under fermentation GED
  gijlen vb to ferment GED
Old Saxon: gēl adj gole, frolicsome GED
  gēl-mōd adj gole, light-minded ASD
Middle Low German: gīlen vb.wk to desire GED
Old High German: geil adj gole, frolicsome GED
  keilī n lasciviousness GED
Middle High German: geil adj gole ASD
  geilen vb.wk to make merry GED
German: geil adj gole ASD
Old Icelandic: geil-igr adj beautiful GED
  gil-ker n fermenting vat GED
  gœl-igr adj beautiful GED
Norwegian: gil n beer under fermentation GED
Danish: geil adj gole ASD
Gothic: *gailjan vb.wk.I to delight GED
Lithuanian: gaĩla adj desirable GED
  gailùs adj pitiful; sharp, bitter GED
Latvian: gaîlêt vb to glow GED
  gails adj voluptuous GED
Old Church Slavonic: (d)zělo adv very GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)

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