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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghou̯(ē)-   'to gawk, be aware of, pay attention to'

Semantic Field: to Know


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gī(e)man/gēman/gȳman vb.wk to take care/notice of RPN/ASD
  gīeme n care RPN
Middle English: favor n favor W7
  gawen vb to gawk, gape AHD
English: favor n appearance AHD/W7
  favorite n something treated/regarded with special favor/liking AHD/W7
  gawk adj left-handed AHD/W7
  gawk n oaf, lout AHD/W7
  gawk vb to gape/stare AHD/W7
Old Saxon: gōma n entertainment RPN
  gōmian vb to guard RPN
Old High German: gouma n attentiveness; banquet RPN
  goumōn vb to foresee/care for/entertain guests RPN
Old Norse: gaumr n.masc heed, attention LRC
   vb to heed, observe AHD
Old Icelandic:  vb to heed, observe RPN
  geyma vb to heed, mind RPN
  geymdir n heed, attention RPN
  guma vb to heed, pay attention to RPN
Icelandic: geyma vb to take care/notice of, heed ASD
Danish: gjemme vb to take care/notice of, heed ASD
Swedish: gömma vb to take care/notice of, heed ASD
Gothic: gáumjan vb.wk.I to observe, perceive, see LRC
Latin: faveo, favēre vb to favor, help, support RPN
  favor n.masc favor, sympathy W7
French: faveur n.fem favor, friendly regard W7
Italian: favore n.masc favor W7
  favorire vb to favor W7
  favorito n.masc favorite, pet W7
Czech: hověju vb to care for, favor RPN
Old Church Slavonic: govějǫ, gověti vb to honor, worship RPN
Russian: govet’ vb to fast/attend service before sacraments RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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