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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghou-ro-s   'frightened, frightening'

Semantic Field: Fear, Fright


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gnorn/grorn/gnyrn n.masc/fem sorrow, sadness, dejection IEW/ASD
  gnorn adj sad, dejected, sorrowful ASD
  gnornan, gnornede, gnorned vb.wk to mourn, grieve, lament ASD
  gnornian, gnornode, gnornod vb.wk.II to mourn, grieve, lament LRC
  gryn/gyrn n.str.neut mourning IEW
  gryre n.masc dread IEW
Old Saxon: g(n)ornōn/grornōn vb to mourn, grieve, lament IEW/ASD
  gornōn vb.wk to mourn GED
  gorn-word n.str.neut lament GED
  gruri n.masc dread IEW
Old High German: gōrag adj pitiful, miserable GED
Old Icelandic: gaurr n.masc miserable person IEW
Gothic: *gauriþa n.fem sorrow GED
  gaurjan vb.wk.I to insult GED
  gaurs adj sad, sorrowful; sullen GED
Russian: žurítь vb to scold GED
Ukrainian: žurbá n sorrow GED
  žurýty vb to perturb GED
Sanskrit: ghorás adj dreadful, awe-inspiring GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin

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