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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: ghrēi- : ghrəi- : ghrī-, and lit. ghrei-   'to smear over'

Semantic Field: to Rub


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: cramen n scab W7
Old English: āgrīsan vb to fear W7
  crisma n.masc chrism W7/ASD
  Crist prop.n Christ W7
  cristen n Christian W7
  cristnian vb to christen W7
  grīma n.masc mask, visor, helmet; ghost, specter ASD
  gris- pfx fearful W7
  grislic/gryslīc adj grisly W7/ASD
Middle English: cre(i)me n cream W7
  Crist prop.n Christ W7
  cristnen vb to christen W7
  grim n grime AHD
  grisly adj grisly W7
English: chrism n consecrated oil used in liturgical churches for baptism/confirmation/ordination AHD/W7
  Christ prop.n [transliterated Greek title meaning] anointed one AHD/W7
  christen vb.trans to baptize AHD/W7
  Christian prop.n adherent of Christianity LRC
  cream n yellowish part of milk having 18-40 percent butterfat AHD/W7
  Gríma prop.n spy a.k.a. Wormtongue in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  grime n dirt/soot/smut adhering to/embedded in surface AHD/W7
  grisly adj gruesome, horrible AHD/W7
Old Frisian: gryslik adj grisly ASD
Middle Dutch: grēme n.fem dirt, smut IEW
  grīme n soot; mask W7/AHD
Flemish: grijm n soot; mask W7
Old Saxon: grīma n mask, helmet; specter IEW
Old High German: grīsenlīh/grisenlich adj grisly, terrible W7/ASD
German: grässlich adj grisly ASD
Old Norse: gríma n.fem mask; enigma; shadow of night LRC
Latin: christianus adj Christian W7
  Christus n.masc Christ W7
Late Latin: chrisma n.neut ointment W7
Middle French: craime/cresme n.fem cream W7
Greek: chriein vb to anoint W7
  chrisma n.neut ointment W7
  christianos adj re: adherent of Christianity W7
  Χριστός prop.adj/n (re:) Christ LRC
  χριστός n.masc anointed one LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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