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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. ghrem-   'to grumble; resound, thunder'

Semantic Field: Noise, Thunder


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: gram/grom adj cruel, fierce; wroth, angry, inimical GED/ASD
  grama n rage, wrath, fury, anger, trouble ASD
  gremian/gremman vb.wk to vex, provoke, irritate, make grim GED
  grim(m) adj grim GED/W7
  grymetan/grimet(i)an vb.wk to grunt, rave, roar, bellow ASD/GED
Middle English: grim adj grim W7
English: Gram prop.n 8th Rohan king in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  grim adj fierce, angry, savage AHD/W7
  grimace n facial expression of disgust/disapproval AHD/W7
  Grimbeorn prop.n Beorn's son in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Grimbold prop.n Rohan marshal in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Grimslade prop.n Grimbold's home in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  grumble vb to mutter in discontent AHD/W7
  Herugrim prop.n Theoden's sword in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Isengrim prop.n hobbit name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  pogrom n organized devastation, massacre of helpless people AHD/W7
Old Frisian: grim(m) adj grim GED
Middle Dutch: grommen vb to grunt W7
Old Saxon: gram adj wroth, angry, inimical GED
  grim(m) adj grim GED
Old High German: gram adj wroth, angry, inimical GED
  gramizzōn vb to grunt, rave, roar, bellow GED
  gremezī n wrath, anger, annoyance GED
  gremian/gremman vb.wk to vex, provoke, irritate, make grim ASD/GED
  grim(m) adj grim GED/W7
Middle High German: gram adj wroth, angry ICE
German: gram adj wroth, angry ASD
  grämen vb to vex, provoke, irritate ASD
  Grimasse n.fem grimace LRC
  grimm adj grim ASD
Yiddish: pogrom n pogrom W7
Old Norse: gramr n.masc king, warrior LRC
Old Icelandic: gramir fiends, demons ICE
  gramr adj wroth, angry, inimical GED
  gremja vb to vex, provoke, irritate, make grim GED
  grimmr adj grim GED
Icelandic: gramr adj wroth, angry ASD
  gremja vb to vex, provoke, irritate ASD
  grimmr adj grim ASD
  gröm fiends, demons ASD
Danish: gram adj wroth, angry ICE
  grum adj grim, cruel GED
Old Swedish: græmia vb to vex, provoke, irritate, make grim GED
Swedish: grym adj grim, cruel GED
  grymta vb to grunt GED
Gothic: *gramjan vb.wk.I to vex, provoke, irritate, make grim GED
  *in-gramjan vb.wk.I to vex, provoke, irritate, make grim GED
Middle French: grimace n.fem grimace W7
  grommeler vb to grunt W7
French: grimace n.fem grimace, wry face W7
Old Prussian: grumins n thunder GED
Lithuanian: gramėti vb to fall with a crash GED
Latvian: gremst vb to threaten GED
Old Church Slavonic: gromъ n thunder GED
  -grьměti n thunder GED
Russian: pogrom n devastation W7
Greek: chromados n.masc action of gnashing W7
  χρόμος n noise, neighing GED
New Persian: γaram n anger GED
Avestan: granta- vb.past.ptc angered GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
past=past (tense)
pl=plural (number)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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