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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. gel-   'to stab; pain, death, quell'

Semantic Fields: to Press; Knife (tool); Pain, Suffering; to Die; Dead; Death

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: atbaill vb to die, perish GED
Middle Welsh: (a)ballu vb to die, perish GED
English  
Old English: cwalu/cwælu n.fem violent death, slaughter, destruction GED/ASD
  cwelan vb.str to die GED
  cwellan vb to kill W7
  cwyld-tīd n.str.neut evening, time of rest  
Middle English: killen vb to kill W7
  quell n quell W7
  quellen vb to quell, kill W7
  quille n quill IEW
English: belonephobia n trypanophobia, fear of pins/needles AHD
  kill vb to deprive of life AHD/W7
  quell n killing, slaughter AHD/W7
  quell vb.trans to suppress, put down AHD/W7
  quill n large feather; weaving spool IEW
W-Germanic  
Dutch: kwaal n fatal illness GED
  kwellen vb to vex ASD
  quelen vb to die ASD
Old Saxon: qualu n.str.fem torment GED
  quelan vb to die violently ASD
  quellian vb to kill ASD
Old High German: chelī/quelī n torment GED
  chwilti-werk n.str.neut evening work GED
  quāla n.fem quell, torment, misery, suffering GED
  quelan vb.str.IV to suffer GED
  queljan vb to kill ASD
  quellen vb to quell, kill, torture W7
Middle High German: quel(le)n/kellen vb to vex, press ASD
German: Qual n.fem quell, torment LRC
  quälen vb to vex ASD
N-Germanic  
Old Icelandic: kveld n.str.neut evening, time of rest  
  kvǫl n suffering GED
Icelandic: kwelja vb to torment ASD
Danish: qwäle vb to quell, torture ASD
Swedish: kväll n evening TLL
  qwälja vb to torment ASD
E-Germanic  
Gothic: *ana-qal n rest, quiet GED
  *ana-qilan vb to die, go to rest GED
Baltic  
Old Prussian: gallan n death GED
Lithuanian: gãlas n.masc end GED
  gélti vb to prick GED
  gėlà n severe pain GED
  gìltinė n death GED
Latvian: galotne n.fem top, summit LRC
Slavic  
Old Church Slavonic: žalь n pain GED
  žęlo vb to prick GED
Hellenic  
Greek: belonē n.fem needle W7
Armenian  
Armenian: kełem n torture GED

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
IV=class 4
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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