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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 4. ger(ə)-   'to praise, congratulate, raise one's voice'

Semantic Fields: Praise (n); to Shout, Cry Out

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Celtic  
Old Irish: bárd n bard IEW/ODE
Welsh: bardd n bard IEW
English  
Middle English: agreen vb to agree W7
  bard n bard W7
  grace n grace W7
  gratis adj/adv gratis W7
  gratitude n gratitude W7
  maugre prep maugre W7
English: agree vb to concede, admit AHD/W7
  Bard prop.n Laketown hero in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  bard n poet/singer, declaimer of epic/heroic verse AHD/W7
  congratulate vb.trans to express pleasure to, re: success/good fortune AHD/W7
  disgrace n loss of grace/favor/honor AHD/W7
  grace n unmerited divine assistance given to man for regeneration/sanctification AHD/W7
  grate adj pleasing, thankful AHD/W7
  grateful adj appreciating benefits received AHD/W7
  gratify vb.trans to remunerate AHD/W7
  gratis adv free, without charge/recompense AHD/W7
  gratitude n thankfulness, state of being grateful AHD/W7
  gratuitous adj given unearned/without recompense AHD/W7
  gratuity n tip, something given voluntarily AHD
  ingrate n ungrateful person AHD/W7
  ingratiate vb.trans to gain favor by deliberate effort AHD/W7
  maugre prep in spite of AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
Old High German: queran vb to sigh W7
German: Barde n.masc bard LRC
  gratis adj free, without charge/recompense LRC
  gratulieren vb to congratulate LRC
Italic  
Latin: bardus n bard ODE
  congratulor, congratulari, congratulatus vb.dep to congratulate, wish joy W7
  gratia, gratiae n.fem favor, grace, esteem, regard LRC
  gratificor, gratificari vb.dep to make oneself pleasing W7
  gratiis n.fem.abl.pl gratis, without recompense W7
  gratuitus adj unprovoked, gratuitous W7
  gratulor, gratulari vb.dep to wish joy W7
  gratus vb.ptc pleasing, agreeable W7
  ingratus adj ungrateful W7
Medieval Latin: gratitudo n.fem gratitude W7
Old French: agreer vb to agree AHD
  grace n.fem grace, charm, favor W7
  gré n.masc pleasure W7
  maugré n.masc displeasure W7
Middle French: agreer vb to fit, agree W7
  disgrâce n.fem disgrace W7
  gratifier vb to gratify W7
  gratitude n.fem gratitude W7
French: gré n.masc will, pleasure W7
  malgré prep in spite of TLL
Old Italian: disgrazia n.fem disgrace W7
Italian: grazia n.fem grace W7
Baltic  
Lithuanian: gẽras, gerà adj good, well LRC
  girdėti, gir̃di, girdėjo vb to hear LRC
Latvian: dzirdēt, dzirdu, dzirdēju vb to hear LRC
Albanian  
Albanian: gërshas vb to call, invite IEW
Indic  
Sanskrit: gṛnāti vb to praise W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
abl=ablative (case)
adj=adjective
adv=adverb(ial)
dep=deponent
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
pl=plural (number)
prep=preposition
prop=proper
ptc=participle
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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