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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: i̯em-   'to hold, match, defeat, geminate; twin'

Semantic Field: to Hold


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: ef(e)n/æfen adj even, equal IEW/ASD
  efn(e)/efen adv just, even IEW/ASD
Middle English: even adj/adv even W7
  gemel n twin AHD
English: bigeminal adj paired, double AHD/W7
  even adj flat, smooth, level, uniform IEW/W7
  even adv quite, fully, exactly, precisely IEW/W7
  geminate adj duplicate, arranged in pairs AHD/W7
  geminate vb to pair, double, become paired W7
  Gemini prop.n Twins (zodiacal constellation) LRC
  gimmal n two/more interlocked rings AHD
  trigeminus n main facial sensory nerve AHD
German: eben adj even LRC
  Ebene n.fem plain TLL
  neben prep beside, next to TLL
Old Norse: Ymir prop.n.masc Ymir (a giant) LRC
Latin: Gemini, Geminorum Gemini, the Twins (Castor and Pollux) W7
  gemino, gemināre, gemināvī, geminātus vb to double W7
  geminus n.masc twin W7
Late Latin: bigeminus adj doubled W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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