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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. i̯eu-, i̯eu̯ə-, i̯eu-g-   'to yoke, join, tie together'

Semantic Fields: Yoke; to Join, Unite


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Welsh: iau n yoke LRC
Old English: geoc/(g)ioc/geoht/gōc n.neut yoke W7/ASD
Middle English: adjoinen vb to adjoin W7
  aiden vb to aid AHD
  conjoinen vb to conjoin W7
  conjugat vb.ptc joined, combined, united W7
  conjunct vb.ptc joined, combined, united W7
  enjoinen vb to enjoin W7
  eyden vb to aid, help W7
  joinen vb to join W7
  joint(e) n joint W7
  jousten vb to joust W7
  rejoinen vb to rejoin W7
  rejoiner n rejoinder W7
  subjugaten vb to subjugate W7
  yok n yoke W7
English: adjoin vb to add/attach by joining AHD/W7
  adjust vb to bring to more satisfactory state AHD/W7
  adjutant n aide, staff officer AHD
  adjuvant adj serving to aid/contribute AHD/W7
  aid vb to help, assist AHD/W7
  aide n assistant, aide-de-camp W7
  aide-de-camp n camp assistant W7
  azygous adj single, not one of pair AHD/W7
  conjoin vb to join together for common purpose AHD/W7
  conjugal adj re: marriage/married state/matrimonial relations AHD/W7
  conjugate adj coupled, joined together as pair(s) AHD/W7
  conjunct adj united, joined AHD/W7
  enjoin vb.trans to direct/impose by authoritative order AHD/W7
  injunction n admonition, order, act/instance of enjoining AHD/W7
  join vb to put/bring together to form unit AHD/W7
  joinder n conjunction AHD/W7
  joint adj combined, united AHD/W7
  joint n point of contact between parts of animal skeleton AHD/W7
  joust vb.intrans to fight on horseback AHD/W7
  jugate adj paired AHD/W7
  jugular adj re: throat/neck AHD/W7
  jugum n pair of opposite leaflets of pinnate leaf AHD/W7
  junction n act/state of joining/being joined AHD/W7
  junta n council/committee for political/governmental purposes AHD/W7
  rejoin vb to answer replication of plaintiff AHD/W7
  rejoinder n defendant's answer to plaintiff's replication AHD/W7
  subjoin vb.trans to append, annex AHD/W7
  subjugate vb.trans to master, force to submit AHD/W7
  syzygy n nearly straight-line configuration among 3 orbiting celestial bodies AHD/W7
  yoga n Hindu theistic philosophy re: suppression of body/mind activity AHD/W7
  yoke n wooden bar/frame by which draft animals are joined to work together AHD/W7
  yoke vb to join via yoke W7
  zeugma n use of word to modify/govern two/more words, applying distinctively to each AHD/W7
  zygoma n zygomatic arch AHD/W7
  zygote n cell formed by union of 2 gametes AHD/W7
  -zygous adj having zygotic constitution AHD/W7
Old High German: jo(c)h n yoke W7
German: Joch n.neut yoke ASD
Old Norse: ok n yoke LRC
Gothic: (ga-)juk n yoke, pair LRC
Latin: adjungo, adjungere vb to fasten, harness W7
  adjuto, adjutāre vb to assist zealously W7
  adjuvo, adjuvāre vb to help, assist W7
  conjugalis adj of marriage W7
  conjugō, conjugāre, conjugāvī, conjugātus vb to join, unite W7
  conjungo, conjungere, conjunxi, conjunctus vb to join, connect, fasten together W7
  conjunx, conjugis n.masc/fem spouse W7
  injungo, injungere, injunxi, injunctus vb to join, attach to W7
  iuvō, iuvāre, iūvī, iūtum vb to assist, help LRC
  iuxtā adv/prep near LRC
  jugo, jugare vb to join W7
  jugulum n.neut collarbone, throat W7
  jugum n.neut yoke W7
  junctio, iunctionis n.fem act/result of joining W7
  jungo, jungere, junxi, junctus vb to yoke, join together W7
  juvo, juvare vb to help W7
  subjugo, subjugare, subjugavi, subjugatus vb to bring under yoke W7
  subjungo, subjungere vb to join beneath, subordinate, add W7
Vulgar Latin: juxto, juxtāre vb to put/be near W7
Late Latin: injunctio, injunctionis n.fem injunction W7
  jugularis adj jugular W7
  syzygia n.fem conjunction W7
New Latin: jugum n.neut yoke W7
  zygoma, zygomatos n.fem zygomatic arch/bone W7
Spanish: junta n.fem committee, association W7/Sal
  junto adj/vb.ptc joined W7
Old French: aider vb to aid AHD
  ajoindre vb to adjoin AHD
  ajoster vb to adjust AHD
  enjoindre vb to enjoin W7
  joindre vb to join W7
  jointe n.fem action of joining W7
  juster vb to put/be near W7
Middle French: adjoindre vb to adjoin W7
  aider vb to help W7
  conjoindre vb to join W7
  conjugal adj relative to marriage W7
  injonction n.fem injunction W7
  joindre vb to join W7
  joint n.masc joint, articulation W7
  rejoindre vb to rejoin W7
  subjoindre vb to subjoin W7
French: adjuvant n.masc adjuvant, sidekick W7
  ajuster vb to adjust W7
  joindre vb to join W7
  jusque adv until, up to TLL
  juste adj just, exact W7
Lithuanian: jùngas n yoke LRC
  jùngti, jùngia, jùngė vb to join, unite LRC
Old Church Slavonic: igo n yoke LRC
Homeric Greek: ζεῦγος (yoked) pair LRC
  ζυγόν n.neut yoke LRC
Greek: azygos adj unmarried W7
  zeugma n.neut joining W7
  zeugnynai vb to yoke, join W7
  -zygos sfx yoked, with an egg W7
  zygoun vb to join W7
  zygōma n.neut zygoma W7
  zygōtos adj yoked W7
  syzygia n.fem syzygy, state of being yoked together W7
  syzygos adj yoked together W7
  ὑποζύγιον n.neut pack animal LRC
Hittite: iukan/yugan n yoke LRC
Armenian: luc n yoke LRC
Sanskrit: yugá(m) n yoke, pair LRC
  yunakti vb to yoke W7
  yoga n Hindu theistic philosophy re: suppression of body/mind activity W7
Tocharian A: yokäm n yoke LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
Sal=Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española (1996)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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