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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: i̯eu̯os-   'rule, right, justice, statute'

Semantic Field: General Law

 

Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
English  
Middle English: abjuren vb to abjure W7
  adjuren vb to adjure W7
  conjuren vb to conjure W7
  injurie n injury W7
  jure n jury W7
  just adj just W7
English: abjure vb.trans to deny/renounce upon oath AHD/W7
  adjure vb.trans to charge/command solemnly under oath/penalty of curse AHD/W7
  conjure vb to charge/entreat earnestly/solemnly AHD/W7
  injury n wrong, act that damages/hurts AHD/W7
  jural adj juristic, re: law AHD/W7
  juridical adj re: office of judge/administration of justice AHD/W7
  jurisconsult n jurist AHD/W7
  jurisdiction n right/power/authority to apply/interpret law AHD/W7
  jurist n one having thorough knowledge of law AHD/W7
  jury n men sworn to give verdict on matter submitted to them AHD/W7
  just adj reasonable, conforming to/having basis in fact/reason AHD/W7
  justice n fairness, quality of being just AHD
  justice n justice CDC
  nonjuror n one who refuses oath-taking AHD
  perjure vb.trans to commit perjury AHD/W7
W-Germanic  
German: Jura n law LRC
  Jury n.fem jury, selection committee LRC
  Justiz n.fem justice LRC
Italic  
Latin: abjuro, abjurāre vb to deny on oath W7
  adjuro, adjurāre vb to adjure W7
  conjuro, conjurare vb to swear together W7
  consulo, consulere, consului, consultus vb to consult W7
  iniuria, injuriae n.fem wrong, harsh treatment, damage, injustice LRC
  injurus adj perjury W7
  iūdicō, iūdicāre, iūdicāvī, iūdicātum vb to decide LRC
  ius, iuris n.neut law, right LRC
  jurisconsultus n.masc lawyer W7
  juro, jurāre vb to swear W7
  justitia n justice CDC
  justus adj just, right W7
  perjuro, perjurare vb to perjure W7
Medieval Latin: jurista n.fem jurist W7
Old French: abjurer vb to abjure, abstain from AHD
  conjurer vb to conjure W7
  jurer vb to swear W7
  justice/jostice n justice CDC
Anglo-French: juree n.fem jury17 W7
Middle French: ajurer vb to adjure W7
  juriste n.masc jurist, lawyer W7
  juste adj just, right W7
  perjurer vb to commit perjury W7
Indic  
Sanskrit: yoṣ n welfare W7

 

Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
adj=adjective
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
n=noun
neut=neuter (gender)
trans=transitive
vb=verb

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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