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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kā-   'to like, wish, desire'

Semantic Fields: to Will, Wish; to Desire


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hōre n.fem whore W7/ASD
Middle English: charite n charity W7
  cherisshen vb to cherish W7
  hordom n whoredom W7
  hore n whore W7
English: caress n endearment, act/expression of kindness/affection AHD/W7
  charity n love AHD/W7
  cherish vb.trans to hold dear, feel/show affection for AHD/W7
  Kamasutra prop.n Sanskrit treatise re: love/pleasure AHD
  whore n prostitute, woman who whores AHD/W7
  whore vb to engage in unlawful sexual intercourse LRC
  whoredom n practice of whoring AHD/W7
Old High German: huora n whore ASD
German: Hure n.fem whore ASD
Old Norse: hōra n whore W7
  hōrdōmr n adultery W7
  hōrr n adulterer W7
Icelandic: hōra n whore ASD
Latin: caritas n.fem dearness; Christian love W7
  carus adj dear W7
Portuguese: caro adj dear TLL
Spanish: caritad n charity TLL
  caro adj dear TLL
Old French: charité n.fem charity W7
  cherir vb to cherish W7
  chier adj.masc dear W7
Middle French: cherir, cheriss- vb to cherish W7
French: caresse n.fem caress W7
  charité n charity TLL
  cher adj dear TLL
Italian: carezza n.fem caress W7/CID
  caro adj dear W7
Sanskrit: kāma n love W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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