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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. k̑ā̆k-   'branch'

Semantic Field: Branch


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cēcht n plow GED
Middle Irish: gēc n branch GED
Welsh: cainc n branch GED
Dutch: haai n shark TLL
Old High German: huohili n.dim wooden hook-plow GED
  *huoho n plow GED
German: Hai n shark TLL
Old Icelandic: hár n.masc peg, thole pin; shark GED/KNW
  hæll n.masc peg GED
Danish: haj n shark TLL
Swedish: haj n shark TLL
Gothic: *hoha n.masc plow GED
Old Prussian: sagnis n root GED
Lithuanian: (at)šankė n barb GED
  šakà n branch, twig GED
  šaknís n root GED
Latvian: sakas n pitchfork GED
  sakne n root GED
Old Church Slavonic: *sokъ n branch GED
  sochá n pole, plow GED
  sǫčьcь n.dim dry wood GED
Albanian: thekë n fringe, tip GED
Armenian: c̣aχ n twig GED
New Persian: šāḫ n branch; antlers GED
Sanskrit: śaṅkúṣ n peg GED
  śā́khā n.fem branch GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)

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