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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kapro-   'he-goat'

Semantic Field: He-Goat


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: gabor n goat RPN
Scots Gaelic: cabar n.masc horn W7/GE
Old English: hæfer n.masc buck, he-goat RPN/ASD
Middle English: caperis capers W7
  Capricorne prop.n Capricorn W7
  caprifige n caprifig W7
  chevron n chevron W7
English: caber n pole AHD/W7
  cabrilla n sea bass (fish) AHD/W7
  cabriolet n light 1-horse 2-wheeled carriage AHD/W7
  Capella prop.n bright double star in constellation Auriga LRC
  caper n low prickly Mediterranean shrub AHD/W7
  caper n bounding leap, frolicsome escapade W7
  caper vb to prance, leap about W7
  capers caper berries (a relish) AHD/W7
  capreomycin n tuberculosis antibiotic AHD
  Capricorn prop.n southern zodiacal constellation W7
  caprifig n wild fig AHD/W7
  caprine adj goatlike, re: goat(s) AHD/W7
  capriole n caper: leap AHD/W7
  chevre n goat, nanny goat AHD
  chevron n heraldic charge: diagonal stripes meeting at angle AHD/W7
Dutch: haver n oats TLL
Old Saxon: havoro/haƀoro n oats KSW
Old High German: habaro n oats KDW
German: Hafer n oats TLL
  Kaper n.fem caper(s) LRC
Old Norse: hafri n oats KNW
Old Icelandic: hafr n buck, he-goat RPN
Icelandic: hafr n buck, he-goat ASD
Faeroese: havur n buck, he-goat RPN
Danish: havre n oats TLL
Swedish: havre n oats TLL
Latin: Capella prop.n.fem Capella, the Goat W7
  caper, capris n.masc he-goat RPN
  capra n.fem she-goat W7
  capreolus n.masc goat, roebuck W7
  Capricornus prop.n.masc Capricorn, lit. Goat-horn W7
  caprificus n.fem wild fig-tree W7
  caprinus adj re: goats W7
Vulgar Latin: caprio, caprionis n.masc rafter W7
Portuguese: cabra n goat TLL
Spanish: cabra n.fem goat W7
  cabrilla n.fem sea bass W7
Middle French: capriole n.fem goat W7
  chevron n.masc chevron, rafter W7
French: cabriole n.fem caper: leap W7
  cabriolet n.masc cabriolet W7
  chèvre n chevre TLL
  chèvrefeuille n.masc honeysuckle, lit. goatleaf LRC
Old Italian: capriola n.fem female goat W7
  capriole n.fem female goat W7
  capriolo n.masc roebuck W7
Italian: capra n goat TLL
Greek: kapparis n.fem capers W7
  κάπρος n.masc wild boar RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GE=Colin Mark: The Gaelic-English Dictionary (2003)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
KSW=Gerhard Köbler: Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, 3rd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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