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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: kā̆pho-, or k̑ō̆pho-   'hoof'

Semantic Field: Foot


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hōf n.masc hoof RPN/ASD
Middle English: hache n ax W7
  hachet n.dim hatchet W7
  hoof n hoof W7
  notehache n nuthatch W7
English: hash vb.trans to chop in small pieces AHD/W7
  hatchet n light short-handled ax with hammerhead AHD/W7
  hoof n horn/nail protecting ungulate mammal digits AHD/W7
  kope(c)k n Russian currency unit AHD
  nuthatch n bird intermediate between titmice/creepers AHD/W7
  piolet n ice ax (for cutting footholds) AHD
  quebracho n tropical American hardwood tree AHD/W7
Dutch: hoef n hoof RPN
Old High German: hāppa n sickle W7
  huof n hoof RPN
German: Huf n hoof ASD
Old Icelandic: hófr n hoof RPN
Icelandic: hōfr n hoof ASD
Danish: hov n hoof TLL
Swedish: hov n hoof TLL
Spanish: hacha n.fem ax W7
  quiebra it breaks W7
American Spanish: quebracho n.masc lumber, hardwood W7
Old French: hache n.fem battle-ax W7
  hachier vb to hash W7
Middle French: hache n.fem battle-ax W7
  hachette n.fem.dim hatchet, small ax W7
French: hache n ax TLL
  hacher vb to hash W7
Old Russian: kopeika n kopek AHD
  kopie n spear AHD
Russian: kopat' vb to hack AHD
  kopeĭka n kopek AHD
Avestan: safa n horse hoof RPN
Sanskrit: śaphá-ḥ n hoof RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
3=3rd person
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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