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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. k̑em-   'to wrap, cover, conceal'

Semantic Fields: to Wind, Wrap; to Cover; to Hide, Conceal


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: feðer-hama/feðer-homa n.wk.masc wings, plumage, feather-coat ASD
  flǣsc-hama/flǣsc-homa n.wk.masc body, carcass, lit. flesh-coat ASD
  grǣg-hama adj/n.wk.masc gray-coated (one, i.e. wolf) ASD
  hama/homa n.wk.masc hame ASD
  hamor n hammer W7
  hemeþe n hame: shirt GED
  he(o)fon/heofen/heofun n.str.masc heaven ASD
  heofon-cund adj heavenly GED
  heofon-rīce n.neut kingdom of heaven LRC
  scand n.masc/fem disgrace, infamous man/woman ODE
  sceamian vb.wk to shame, feel shame, be ashamed ODE/ASD
  sc(e)amu n.fem shame, confusion; modesty, bashfulness W7/ODE/ASD
Middle English: chemise n shirt, chemise W7
  hame n hame OED
  hamer n hammer W7
  heven n heaven W7
  scant adj scant W7
  shame n shame W7
English: chemise n woman's one-piece undergarment W7
  Gimli prop.n dwarf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Greyhame prop.n epithet for Gandalf in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Háma prop.n personal name in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  hame n covering: skin, rind, membrane; shirt, garment OED
  hammer n handle with solid head used for pounding AHD/W7
  heaven n firmament, dome-like expanse of sky over earth AHD/W7
  scant adj chary, meager, not full/large/plentiful W2I
  shame n disgrace, dishonor, painful emotion re: guilt TLL/W7
  shame vb.trans to disgrace, bring shame to W7
Old Frisian: hama n hame GED
  hemethe n hame: shirt GED
  himel-rīk n kingdom of heaven ASD
  himul/himel n.str.masc heaven GED/ASD
  skame/skome n shame ODE
Dutch: hemd n hame: vest TLL
  hemel n.str.masc heaven GED
Old Saxon: hamo n hame GED
  heƀan n.str.masc heaven GED
  heƀan-rīki n kingdom of heaven ASD
  himil n.str.masc heaven GED
  himil-rīki n kingdom of heaven ASD
  skama n shame ODE
Low German: hǣwen n.str.masc heaven GED
Old High German: hamar n hammer W7
  hamo n hame GED
  hemidi n.str.neut hame: shirt GED
  himel-chunni n.str.neut heavenly race GED
  himil n.str.masc heaven GED
  himil-rīchi n kingdom of heaven ASD
  scama n shame W7
  scanda n disgrace ODE
  scant adj scant; ashamed ODE
German: Hammer n.masc hammer LRC
  Hemd n.neut hame: shirt LRC
  Himmel n.masc heaven ASD
  Himmelreich n.neut kingdom of heaven ASD
Old Norse: gimill/himill/himinn n.masc heaven ICE/IEW
  Gimli prop.n.dat heavenly abode (Voluspa locale) ICE
  hamr n.masc hame ICE
  skǫmm n.fem shame ODE
  ulfa-hamr n.masc wolf-hame LRC
Old Icelandic: hamast vb.wk to assume animal shape, rage (like a berserk) GED
  hams n.masc hame GED
  himinn n.str.masc heaven GED
Icelandic: hifinn/himinn n heaven ASD
  himin-rīki n kingdom of heaven ASD
Danish: himmel n heaven GED
  himme-rige n kingdom of heaven ASD
Swedish: himmel n heaven GED
  skam n shame TLL
Gothic: af-hamon vb.wk.II to get undressed GED
  ana-hamon vb.wk.II to get dressed GED
  *and-hamon vb.wk.II to undress GED
  ga-hamon vb.wk.II to get dressed GED
  *himina-kunds adj heavenly GED
  himins n.str.masc heaven LRC
  skanda n disgrace ODE
  ufar-hamon vb.wk.II to don, put on GED
Late Latin: camisia n shirt, chemise W7
Portuguese: camisa n shirt, chemise TLL
Spanish: camisa n shirt, chemise TLL
Old French: chemise n shirt, chemise TLL
French: chemise n shirt, chemise TLL
Italian: camicia n shirt, chemise TLL
Greek: akmē n.fem point W7
Hittite: kammara- n cloud, smoke, vapor GED
Sanskrit: śāmulyàm n bridal garment GED


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
II=class 2
dat=dative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
GED=Winfred P. Lehmann: A Gothic Etymological Dictionary (1986)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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