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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: k̑ent-   'to stab, stick'

Semantic Fields: to Press; Knife (tool)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: cinteir n spur RPN
Breton: kentr n spur RPN
Cornish: kenter n spike RPN
Welsh: cethr n nail, tip RPN
Middle English: centre n center W7
English: amniocentesis n amniotic fluid extraction via centesis AHD
  center n point equidistant from exterior points of circle/sphere/etc. AHD/W7
  centesis n puncture/perforation of body cavity using hollow needle LRC
  centrobaric adj re: center of gravity AHD
  cestus n woman's belt AHD/W7
  dicentra n fumitory family of herbs AHD/W7
  eccentric adj not having same center AHD/W7
British English: centre n center LRC
Old High German: hantag adj sharp, pointed RPN
Latin: centrum n.neut center of circle W7
  cestus n.masc gauntlet for boxers W7
  contus n punt pole; long spear/pike RPN
Medieval Latin: eccentricus adj eccentric W7
New Latin: Dicentra n.fem (genus name) W7
Middle French: centre n.masc center W7
Latvian: sīts n hunting spear W7
Greek: ekkentros adj outside the center W7
  κεντέω vb to prick, goad, sting RPN
  κέντρον n sharp point, center of circle RPN
  kestos n.masc girdle W7
  kestos vb.ptc stitched W7
  κοντός n pole RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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