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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. ker-, kor-, kr-   (onomatopoeic: hoarse sound)

Semantic Field: Sound (n)


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Irish: rocas n rook CDC
Old English: hrǣcan vb to spit, hawk W7
  hræfn/hrefn/hræmn/hremn n.masc raven CDC/ASD
  hrāgra n.masc heron KEW/ASD
  hringan vb.wk to ring W7/ASD
  hrōc n.masc rook W7/ASD
  scrīc/scrēc n shrike, thrush W7/ASD
Middle English: corbel n corbel W7
  creken vb to creak, croak IEW
  crevice n crevice W7
  criket n cricket W7
  decrepit adj decrepit W7
  heiroun n heron W7
  raven/reven/revin n raven CDC
  rechen vb to spit, retch W7
  ringen vb to ring W7
  ro(o)k/roc n rook CDC
  scremen vb to scream W7
  scrichen vb to screech W7
  shrik n shrike W7
  shriken vb to shriek, screech W7
English: coracoid adj re: vertebrate process/cartilage bone extending from scapula to(ward) sternum AHD/W7
  corbel n architectural member projecting from within wall, supporting weight AHD/W7
  corbina n American marine fish AHD/W7
  corvine adj re: crow AHD/W7
  Corvus prop.n southern constellation, lit. Crow LRC
  creak vb to make prolonged grating/squeaking sound IEW/W7
  crepitate vb.intrans to crackle, make crackling sound AHD/W7
  crevice n fissure, narrow opening caused by split/crack AHD/W7
  cricket n leaping orthopterous insect AHD/W7
  decrepit adj wasted/weakened by infirmities of age AHD/W7
  decrepitate vb to roast to cause/halt crackling AHD/W7
  heron n long-necked wading bird W7
  raven n glossy black corvine bird AHD/W7
  retch vb to make effort to vomit AHD/W7
  ring, rang, rung vb.str to sound resonantly AHD/W7
  Roäc prop.n dwarf-friendly raven in Tolkien: The Hobbit LRC
  rook n Old World gregarious bird AHD/W7
  screak vb.intrans to screech, make harsh shrill noise AHD/W7
  scream vb to make sudden loud/sharp cry AHD/W7
  screech vb to make high shrill piercing cry AHD/W7
  scritch vb to make high shrill piercing cry AHD/W7
  shrike n gray/brownish oscine bird AHD/W7
Old Dutch: rouca n rook ASD
Middle Dutch: ringen vb to ring W7
  roeck n rook CDC
Dutch: rave(n)/raaf n raven CDC
  reiger n heron TLL
  roek n rook CDC
Middle Low German: rave(n) n raven CDC
  rōk(e) n rook CDC
Low German: rave n raven CDC
  ro(e)k n rook CDC
Old High German: heigaro n heron W7
  hruoh n rook CDC
  rabo/(h)raban/(h)ram n.masc raven CDC
  rachison vb to spit, hawk ASD
  scrīan vb to scream W7
Middle High German: rube/rappe/raben/ram(m) n.masc raven CDC
  ruoch n rook CDC
German: Rabe n.masc raven ASD
  Reiher n heron TLL
  schreien vb to scream LRC
Old Norse: hegri n.masc heron LRC
  hrafn/hramn n.masc raven CDC/ICE
  hrōkr n.masc rook CDC/ICE
  skrækja vb to screak W7
Icelandic: hrafn/hramn n raven ASD
  hringja vb to ring ASD
  hrókr n rook ASD
  hrækja vb to spit, hawk ASD
Danish: hejre n heron TLL
  raage n rook CDC
  ravn n raven CDC
Old Swedish: rafn/ramn n raven CDC
Swedish: häger n heron TLL
  råka n rook CDC
Latin: corvinus adj re: crow/raven W7
  corvus n.masc crow, raven W7
  crepito, crepitare, crepitavi, crepitatus vb to crackle W7
  crepitus, crepitūs n.masc rattling sound W7
  crepō, crepāre, crepuī, crepitus vb to crack, rattle W7
  decrepitus adj infirm, decrepit W7
  increpō, increpāre, increpuī, increpitum vb to scold, rebuke LRC
New Latin: decrepito, decrepitare, decrepitavi, decrepitatus vb to make decrepit W7
Spanish: corbina n.fem acanthopterygian fish W7
  corvino adj re: crow/raven W7
Mexican Spanish: corbina n.fem kind of fish W7
Old French: crevace n.fem crevice W7
  crever vb to break W7
Middle French: corbel n.masc crow, raven W7
  corp n.masc raven W7
  crevace n.fem crevice W7
  criquet n.masc cricket W7
  decrepit adj decrepit W7
  hairon n heron W7
French: corbeau n.masc crow, raven LRC
Lithuanian: krankti vb to croak W7/LD
Greek: korakoeidēs adj like a crow/raven W7
  korax, korakos n.masc crow, raven W7
  κραυγή n.fem shout LRC


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
ICE=Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson: An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
KEW=Gerhard Köbler: Altenglisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LD=Bronius Piesarskas and Bronius Svecevicius: Lithuanian Dictionary (1994)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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