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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. k̑ers-   'to run, course'

Semantic Field: to Run


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: carr n vehicle W7
Middle Welsh: carr n vehicle W7
Old English: hors-þegn n.str.masc horse-thane LRC
Middle English: carien vb to carry W7
  carken vb to cark W7
  carpenter n carpenter W7
  carre n car W7
  chargen vb to charge W7
  chariot n chariot W7
  concourse n concourse W7
  concurren vb to concur W7
  course n course W7
  courser n courser W7
  curraunt adj current W7
  dischargen vb to discharge W7
  discours n discourse W7
  intercurse n intercourse W7
  recours n recourse W7
  recurren vb to recur W7
  succur n succor W7
English: car n vehicle on wheels AHD/W7
  career n passage, course AHD/W7
  cargo n freight, goods/merchandise conveyed in/on vehicle AHD/W7
  caricature n exaggeration via distortion of parts/characteristics AHD/W7
  cariole n light one-horse carriage AHD/W7
  cark vb to worry AHD/W7
  caroche n stately/luxurious personal carriage AHD/W7
  carpenter n workman who builds/repairs wooden structures/structural parts AHD/W7
  carry vb to transport, move while supporting AHD/W7
  charge vb to load, lay/put load on/in AHD/W7
  chariot n light 2/4-wheeled carriage AHD/W7
  concourse n merging/coming together AHD/W7
  concur vb.intrans to meet, come together AHD/W7
  corral n pen/enclosure for confining/capturing livestock AHD/W7
  corrida n bullfight AHD/W7
  corrido n Mexican ballad/folksong AHD
  corridor n passageway into which rooms/compartments open AHD/W7
  corsair n pirate, privateer AHD/W7
  courante n Italian dance featuring quick running steps AHD/W7
  courier n messenger AHD/W7
  course n (moving in) path connecting points AHD/W7
  course vb to run, charge, pursue (game) W7
  courser n charger, swift/spirited horse W7
  current adj flowing, running AHD/W7
  cursive adj running, coursing AHD/W7
  cursor n.obs runner AHD/W2I
  curule adj re: seat reserved for highest dignitaries AHD/W7
  decurrent adj extending downward from place of insertion AHD/CDC
  discharge vb to relieve of charge/load/burden AHD/W7
  discourse n rationality, capacity of orderly thought/procedure AHD/W7
  excursion n expedition, going out/forth AHD/W7
  horse n fast, solid-hoofed herbivorous mammal LRC
  hussar n light cavalry horseman AHD/W7
  incur vb.trans to meet with (e.g. loss/inconvenience) AHD/W7
  intercourse n communication, connection between groups/persons AHD/W7
  kraal n rural village AHD
  occur vb.intrans to appear, be found/met with AHD/W7
  percurrent adj running through entire length AHD/CDC
  precursor n one that precedes/indicates approach of another AHD/W7
  recourse n turning to someone/something for help/protection AHD/W7
  recur vb.intrans to resort, have recourse AHD/W7
  succor n relief AHD/W7
Afrikaans: kraal n kraal, corral AHD
Old Norse: hross n.neut horse LRC
Latin: carpentarius n.masc carriage maker W7
  carra n.fem chariot W7
  carrum n.neut chariot W7
  carrus n.masc chariot, of Celtic origin W7
  concurro, concurrere, concucurri, concursus vb to run together W7
  concursus n.masc circuit, itinerary W7
  curro, currere, cucurri, cursus vb to course W7
  currulis adj re: chariot W7
  currus, currūs n.masc cart, chariot LRC
  cursus, cursūs n.masc course, rapid/running motion LRC
  discurro, discurrere, discucurri, discursus vb to run about W7
  discursus n.masc act of running about W7
  excurro, excurrere, excucurri, excursus vb to extend, run out W7
  excursio, excursionis n.fem attack, act of running out, beginning of speech W7
  incurro, incurrere vb to run into W7
  intercurro, intercurrere, intercucurri, intercursus vb to run between W7
  intercursus n.masc act of running between W7
  occurro, occurrere vb to run towards W7
  praecurro, praecurrere, praecucurri, praecursus vb to run before W7
  praecursor n.masc precursor W7
  recurro, recurrere, recucurri, recursus vb to run back, happen again W7
  recursus n.masc act of running back W7
  succurro, succurrere, succucurri, succursus vb to run up/to help W7
Late Latin: carrico, carricāre vb to load, charge W7
  disarrico, discarricāre vb to unload W7
  discursus n.masc speech, argument, conversation W7
  recursus n.masc recourse W7
Medieval Latin: carraria n.fem vehicular road W7
  cursarius adj re: course W7
  cursivus adj running, cursive writing W7
  discursus n.masc argument W7
Portuguese: curral n corral AHD
Spanish: cargo n.masc load, cargo W7
  corral n.masc enclosure W7
  corrida n.fem corrida, act of running W7
  kargar vb to load W7
Mexican Spanish: corrido n.masc corrido LRC
Old French: char n.masc wheeled vehicle W7
  chargier vb to charge W7
  chariot n.masc chariot W7
  courre vb to run W7
  course n.fem run, course W7
  coursier vb to course W7
  curant vb.pres.ptc current, running W7
  sucors n.masc aid, help W7
Old North French: car n.masc vehicle W7
  carier vb to transport in vehicle W7
  carpentier n.masc carpenter W7
  carquier vb to load, burden, worry W7
Anglo-French: carre n.masc wagon, vehicle W7
Middle French: carière n.fem career W7
  carroche n.fem carriage W7
  chariot n.masc chariot W7
  concours n.masc concourse, contest W7
  corridor n.masc hallway, corridor W7
  corsair(e) n.masc corsair, pirate W7
  courante adj.fem running W7
  courir vb to run W7
  courrier n.masc mail, courier W7
  descharger vb to unload, discharge W7
  entercours n.masc intercourse W7
  recours n.masc recourse W7
French: carriole n.fem carriage mounted on wooden bars for riding on snow W7
  cursive adj.fem cursive, re: writing W7
Old Provençal: carriera n.fem street W7
  carriola n.fem cariole W7
  corsari n.masc pirate W7
Old Italian: carro n.masc car W7
  carroccio n.masc luxurious carriage W7
  correre vb to run W7
  corridore n.masc hallway, corridor W7
  corriere n.masc courier W7
  corsaro n.masc corsair, pirate W7
Italian: caricare vb to load, burden W7
  caricatura n.fem caricature W7
Serbian: husar n hussar, highwayman AHD


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pres=present (tense)
str=strong (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W2I=Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, 2nd ed. (1959)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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