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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 2. keu-, keu̯ə-   'to bend'

Semantic Field: to Bend


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Breton: komb n coomb IEW
Welsh: cwm(m) n.masc coomb IEW/ASD
Old English: comb/cumb n.masc coomb IEW/ASD
  hē(a)h adj high ASD
  hīehð(u)/hīehþo n height RPN
  hof n.neut court, dwelling LRC
  hōp n.masc hoop, ring, circle IEW
  hōpig adj in hills and hollows (re: waves) IEW/ASD
  hype n.masc hip, haunch, upper thigh IEW/ASD
Middle English: combe n coomb LRC
  high adj high W7
  hip n hip W7
  hoblen vb to hobble W7
  hoop n hoop W7
  Slocombe prop.n Slocum LRC
English: Combe prop.n valley-town in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  coomb/comb(e) n vale, basin, hollow, valley IEW
  high adj elevated, raised/extending up W7
  hip n leg-body joint at pelvis LRC
  hobble vb to limp, be lame/unsteady IEW/W7
  hoop n band, circular strip IEW/W7
  Howe prop.n (Snowmane's) barrow in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  how(e) n hill, mound, barrow, tumulus ODE
  Slocum prop.n surname, lit. Plum Valley LRC
Old Frisian: hāch/hāg adj high RPN/ASD
  hof n house, hall, dwelling ASD
Middle Dutch: hoep n hoop, ring W7
Dutch: heup n hip TLL
  heuvel n howe TLL
  hoep n hoop, ring IEW
  kom n.fem coomb, basin ASD
Old Saxon: hof n house, hall, dwelling ASD
  hōh adj high RPN
Old High German: chumph n coomb, basin ASD
  hof n court, house, hall ASD
  hōh adj high RPN
  houc n hill RPN
  huf n.fem hip, haunch ASD
Middle High German: kumpf n vessel, dry measure ASD
German: erhöhen vb.trans to increase TLL
  hoch adj high ASD
  Hof n court, house, hall ASD
  Höhe n height TLL
  Hüfte n.fem hip, haunch ASD
  Hügel n howe TLL
  Kump(f) n.masc cup, bowl, basin ASD
Old Norse: haugr n.masc howe, grave LRC
  hof n.neut farm, farmstead; temple LRC
Old Icelandic: hár adj high RPN
Icelandic: hār adj high ASD
  hof n temple ASD
  huppr n.masc hip, haunch ASD
Faeroese: háur adj high RPN
Norwegian: høg adj high RPN
Danish: hofte n hip TLL
  høg adj high RPN
Swedish: höft n hip TLL
  hög adj high RPN
Gothic: hauhei n height RPN
  hauhs adj high LRC
  hiuhma n heap, multitude RPN
  hūhjan vb to heap up, store up RPN
  hups n.masc hip, haunch ASD
Old French: combe n coomb ASD
Lithuanian: káugė n large stack of hay RPN
  kaukarà n hill RPN
  kaũkas n boil, swelling RPN
Greek: κύμβαλον n.neut cymbal LRC
  παρακύπτω vb to bend down LRC
Sanskrit: kumbha n.masc pot, jug ASD
Tocharian B: kauc adj/adv high, up, above RPN
Tocharian A: koc adj/adv high, up, above RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
ODE=C.T. Onions: The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology (1966)
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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