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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. k̑eu-, k̑eu̯ə- : k̑ū-, k̑u̯ā-   'to swell'

Semantic Field: to Grow


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: cirice n.fem church W7/ASD
  hēala n.masc hernia W7/ASD
Middle English: cave n cave W7
  caverne n cavern W7
  chirche n church W7
  diapason n diapason W7
English: accumulate vb to amass, heap/pile up AHD/W7
  acoelomate adj lacking body cavity between gut and musculature AHD
  cave n natural underground chamber AHD/W7
  cavern n cave, large underground chamber AHD/W7
  cavetto n concave molding roughly approximating quarter circle AHD/W7
  cavity n unfilled space within mass AHD/W7
  -cele n.sfx tumor, hernia AHD/W7
  celiac adj re: abdomen/abdominal cavity AHD
  church n building for public worship AHD/W7
  codeine n crystalline alkaloid opiate AHD/W7
  coelom n epithelium-lined metazoan body cavity AHD/W7
  concave adj hollowed/rounded inward like inside of bowl AHD/W7
  cumulate vb to accumulate AHD/W7
  cumulus n heap, accumulation AHD/W7
  cyma n projecting molding with double curve AHD/W7
  cymatium n crown molding (classic architecture) AHD/W7
  cyme n inflorescence with floral axes terminating in single flower AHD/W7
  cymophane n chrysoberyl AHD/W7
  diapason n burst of harmonious sound AHD/W7
  enceinte adj pregnant, being with child AHD/W7
  excavate vb to create hole/cavity AHD/W7
  kermis n outdoor festival in Low Countries AHD/W7
  kirk n church AHD/W7
  kymograph n recording device for motion/pressure AHD/W7
  Kyrie prop.n Christian liturgical petition (Lord...) AHD
  pan- pfx all TLL
  panacea n cure-all, remedy for all ills/difficulties AHD/W7
  panchromatic adj sensitive to all visible light TLL
  pancratium n ancient Greek boxing/wrestling contest AHD/W7
  pancreas n compound racemose vertebrate gland AHD/W7
  pandect n complete national law code AHD/W7
  pandemic adj widespread, affecting large fraction of population AHD/W7
  Pandora prop.n woman who, given box by Zeus with instructions not to open it, opened it and released all human ills (Greek mythology) LRC
  panmixia n random mating within breeding population AHD
  panoptic adj re: everything in view AHD
  panorama n cyclorama AHD/W7
  pantheism n doctrine equating God with laws/forces of universe W7
  pantheon n temple dedicated to all gods AHD/W7
  pseudocyesis n false pregnancy AHD
Dutch: kerk n church TLL
  kermis n outdoor festival W7
Old High German: hola n hernia ASD
  kirihha n church W7
German: Coelom n coelom W7
  Kirche n church TLL
Old Norse: hūnn n cub W7
  kirkja n church W7
Icelandic: haull n.masc hernia ASD
Danish: kirke n church TLL
Swedish: kyrka n church TLL
Latin: accumulatus vb.ptc accumulated W7
  caverna n.fem cave, grotto W7
  cavo, cavare vb to excavate, make hollow W7
  cavus adj hollow W7
  -cele n.sfx -cele W7
  -ciens, -cientis adj.sfx pregnant W7
  concavus adj concave W7
  cumulo, cumulare, cumulavi, cumulatus vb to heap up W7
  cumulus n.masc mass, cumulus W7
  cyma n.fem cabbage sprout W7
  diapason n.neut octave W7
  excavo, excavare, excavavi, excavatus vb to excavate W7
  inciens, incientis adj pregnant W7
  panacea n.neut panacea, fabulous plant curing all diseases W7
  pancratium n.neut pancratium W7
Vulgar Latin: incienta adj pregnant W7
Late Latin: cavitas n.fem cavity W7
New Latin: cumulus n.masc cumulus, type of cloud W7
  cyma n.fem inflorescence W7
Portuguese: cima n top, peak TLL
Spanish: encima adv above TLL
Old French: cave n.fem basement W7
Middle French: caverne n.fem cave, grotto W7
  cavité n.fem cavity W7
  -cele sfx tumor, hernia W7
  concave adj concave W7
  enceinte adj.fem pregnant W7
French: codéine n.fem codeine W7
Italian: cavo adj void, empty, hollow W7/CID
Old Slavic: kyla n -cele W7
Greek: ἅπας adj all LRC
  ἐγκύων adj pregnant LRC
  ἔμπης adv nevertheless LRC
  kēlē n.fem tumor, hernia W7
  κοιλία n.fem womb LRC
  koilos adj hollow W7
  koilōma n.neut cavity W7
  kyein vb to be pregnant W7
  kyma, kymatos n.neut wave W7
  kymation n.neut little wave W7
  kyriakos adj re: lord W7
  κύριος n.masc lord LRC
  kyros n.masc power W7
  kōdeia n.fem poppyhead W7
  kōos n.masc cavity W7
  panakeia n.fem panacea, fabulous plant curing all diseases W7
  pankration n.neut pancratium W7
  παντάπασι adv absolutely LRC
  πάντως adv altogether LRC
  πάνυ adv at all LRC
  παράπαν adv absolutely LRC
  πᾶς adj all, whole, every LRC
Sanskrit: śaśvat adj all, every W7
  śvayati vb to swell W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CID=Cassell's Italian Dictionary (1958)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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