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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 1. kreu-, kreuə- : krū-, kreus-, krus-   'raw flesh, thick/clotting blood; ice, crust'

Semantic Fields: Flesh; Blood; Ice, Frost


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old Irish: crú n blood RPN
Old English: hrēaw/hrǣw adj raw RPN/ASD
  hrūse n.fem earth, ground LRC
Middle English: cristal n crystal W7
  cristallin adj crystalline W7
  crude adj crude W7
  cruel adj cruel W7
  crust n crust W7
  raw adj raw W7
English: creatine n white crystalline nitrogenous substance AHD/W7
  creodont n extinct carnivorous mammal, lit. flesh-tooth AHD
  crouton n small crisp cube of fried/toasted bread AHD/W7
  crude adj existing in natural state, unaltered by cooking/processing AHD/W7
  cruel adj disposed to inflict pain AHD/W7
  crust n hardened surface/exterior (e.g. of bread) AHD/W7
  crustacean n aquatic arthropod (e.g. crab, shrimp, lobster, barnacle) AHD/W7
  crustaceous adj re: hard shell/crust AHD
  crustose adj re: thin crusty embedded lichen AHD
  crymotherapy n therapeutic use of cold AHD/W7
  crystal n quartz that is (nearly) transparent/(nearly) colorless AHD/W7
  crystalline adj made/composed of crystal(s) AHD/W7
  ecru n beige AHD/W7
  encrust vb to line/cover/overlay with crust AHD/W7
  Kristallnacht prop.n Night of Broken Glass: Nazi anti-Jewish pogrom AHD
  pancreas n compound racemose vertebrate gland AHD/W7
  raw adj uncooked AHD/W7
  recrudesce vb.intrans to break out/become active again AHD/W7
Dutch: raauw adj raw ASD
Old Saxon: hrāo adj raw RPN
Old High German: (h)rō adj raw W7
  (h)roso n ice, crust RPN
  rou adj raw ASD
German: Kristall n.masc crystal LRC
  Kristallnacht prop.n.fem Kristallnacht, lit. crystal night AHD
  Kruste n.fem crust LRC
  roh adj raw ASD
Old Icelandic: hrár adj raw RPN
  hrjósa vb to shake, shudder RPN
  hrúðr n crust, scab on sore RPN
Icelandic: hrár adj raw ASD
Danish: raa adj raw ASD
Swedish:  adj raw ASD
Latin: crudelis, crudele adj cruel, wretched W7
  crudesco, crudescere vb to become hard, violent W7
  crūdus adj raw, uncooked, bleeding RPN
  cruentus adj bloody RPN
  cruor, cruris n.masc gore, blood (flowing from wound) RPN
  crusta n.fem crust, rind, bark RPN
  crystallinus adj of crystals W7
  crystallum n.neut ice, crystal W7
  incrusto, incrustare vb to encrust W7
  recrudesco, recrudescere vb to become raw again W7
New Latin: pancreas n.fem organ in abdomen W7
Old French: cristal n.masc crystal W7
  cruel adj cruel, wretched W7
  escru adj ecru W7
Middle French: cristallin adj of crystal W7
  crouste n.fem crust W7
French: croûte n.fem crust W7
  croûton n.masc crouton W7
  cru adj raw W7
  écru adj unbleached W7
Lithuanian: kraũjas n blood RPN
  kruvinà/krùvinas adj bloody LRC
  kùrti, kùria, kūrė vb to create LRC
Latvian: kruvesis n rough frozen dung in road RPN
Old Church Slavonic: krъvь n blood RPN
Greek: κρέας n flesh, meat RPN
  κρυερός adj icy, chilling RPN
  κρῡμός n frost, icy cold RPN
  κρυόεις adj chilling, ice-cold RPN
  κρύος adj/n ice-cold; chill, frost RPN
  krystallinos adj crystalline W7
  κρύσταλλος n (clear) ice, crystal RPN
  pankreas n.neut pancreas W7
Avestan: xrūra- adj bloody, terrible LRC
Sanskrit: kravíṣ n.neut flesh, raw meat RPN
  krūrá-ḥ adj/n raw, wounded; blood RPN
Tocharian B: krośce adj cold RPN
Tocharian A: krośśäṁ cold(ness) RPN


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
acc=accusative (case)
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
sg=singular (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
RPN=Allan R. Bomhard: Reconstructing Proto-Nostratic (2002)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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