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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: 3. k̑uei-, extended kuei-d-, kuei-s-, kuei-t-   'to shine; white'

Semantic Fields: to Shine, Glisten; White


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: hwǣte n wheat W7
  hwīt adj white W7/ASD
Middle English: whete n wheat W7
  white adj/n white W7
  whiten vb to whiten W7
  whiting n whiting W7
English: bismuth n heavy brittle grayish white trivalent metal AHD/W7
  edelweiss n small perennial composite herb AHD/W7
  wheat n cereal grain yielding fine white flour AHD/W7
  white adj/n reflecting all light/colors; brightest color AHD/W7
  whiten vb.trans to make white AHD/W7
  Whiteskins a.k.a. Rohirrim in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  Whitfoot prop.n hobbit surname in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  whiting n marine food fish AHD/W7
  Whitwell prop.n Shire village in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  witloof n chicory AHD/W7
Old Frisian: hwīt adj white ASD
Middle Dutch: wit adj white W7
  witinc n whiting W7
Dutch: wit adj white W7
  witloof n chicory W7
Old Saxon: hwīt adj white ASD
Old High German: (h)wīz adj white W7
  weiz(z)i n wheat W7/KDW
Middle High German: wise n meadow AHD
German: Edelweiss n.neut edelweiss W7
  weiss adj white W7
  Weizen n.masc wheat LRC
  Wiese n.fem meadow AHD
  Wismut n.neut bismuth W7
  Wittling n.masc whiting LRC
Old Norse: hveiti n wheat KNW
  hvítr adj white, shining LRC
Icelandic: hvítr adj white ASD
Danish: hvede n wheat TLL
Swedish: hvete n wheat TLL
  vit adj white TLL
Gothic: ƕaiteis n wheat KGW
  ƕeits adj white LRC
Crimean Gothic: *wichtgata/vvichtgata adj white CGo
Medieval Latin: wismutum n bismuth AHD
New Latin: bisemūtum n bismuth AHD
Lithuanian: šviesà n.fem light LRC
Old Church Slavonic: světъ n.masc light LRC
Sanskrit: śveta adj white W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CGo=MacDonald Stearns, Jr: Crimean Gothic (1978)
KDW=Gerhard Köbler: Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, 4th ed. (1993)
KGW=Gerhard Köbler: Gotisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (1989)
KNW=Gerhard Köbler: Altnordisches Wörterbuch, 2nd ed. (2003)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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