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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: kās- : kəs-   'to cough'

Semantic Field: to Cough


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Middle Irish: cassach(t) n.masc cough IEW
Old English: *cohhian vb to cough W7
  hwōsta n.masc cough IEW/ASD
Middle English: coughen vb to cough W7
English: cough n (frequent/repeated) act of coughing W7
  cough vb to expel air from lungs explosively W7
Middle Dutch: cuchen vb to cough OED
Dutch: hoest n cough TLL
  kuchen vb to cough OED
Low German: kuchen vb to cough OED
Old High German: huosto n cough IEW
German: Husten n cough TLL
  husten vb to cough LRC
  keuchen vb to pant, gasp OED
Old Icelandic: hosti n.masc cough IEW
Danish: hoste n cough TLL
Swedish: hosta n cough TLL
Lithuanian: kósiu,  vb to cough IEW
  kosulỹs n cough IEW
Latvian: kāsẽju, kãsêt vb to cough IEW
  kãsulis n cough IEW
Sanskrit: kāsá- n cough IEW
  kāsate vb to cough IEW


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
masc=masculine (gender)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
IEW=Julius Pokorny: Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch (1959)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
OED=James A.H. Murray et al: The Oxford English Dictionary (1933)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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