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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: leg̑-   'to gather, collect'

Semantic Field: to Gather, Collect


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: lǣce n.masc leech W7/ASD
Middle English: cateloge n catalog W7
  delegat n delegate W7
  dialogue n dialogue W7
  diligent adj diligent W7
  eclog n eclogue W7
  elect adj elect W7
  epiloge n epilogue W7
  genealogie n genealogy W7
  horologe n horologe W7
  leche n leech W7
  lecture n lecture W7
  legacie n office of legate, legacy W7
  legal adj legal W7
  legate n legate W7
  legende n legend W7
  legible adj legible W7
  legion n legion W7
  lesson n lesson W7
  lettorne n lectern W7
  -logie n.sfx -logy W7
  logik n logic W7
  -logue n.sfx -logue W7
  privilege n privilege W7
  prolog n prologue W7
  sacrilege n sacrilege W7
  silogisme n syllogism W7
  sortilege n sortilege W7
English: alexia n aphasia involving loss of reading ability AHD/W7
  analects n selected miscellaneous written passages AHD/W7
  analogous adj re: likeness/sameness/similarity AHD/W7
  anthology n collection of literary pieces/passages AHD/W7
  apologue n allegorical narrative with moral AHD/W7
  apology n defense, formal justification AHD/W7
  catalog n list, register AHD/W7
  coil vb to wind into rings/spirals AHD/W7
  colleague n office/professional associate AHD/W7
  collect vb to bring together AHD/W7
  collegial adj re: college, group sharing power/authority AHD/CDC
  Decalogue prop.n the Ten Commandments AHD
  delegate n person acting for another AHD/W7
  dialect n regional variety of language AHD/W7
  dialectic n intellectual investigation via dialogue W7
  dialogue n (written composition with) characters conversing AHD/W7
  diligent adj painstaking, characterized by steady/earnest/energetic effort AHD/W7
  dyslexia n impaired ability to recognize/comprehend writing AHD
  eclectic adj re: selecting best style/method/doctrine AHD/W7
  eclogite n coarse-grained metamorphic rock AHD
  eclogue n idyll, bucolic, poem with shepherds conversing AHD/W7
  ecology n study of interrelationships of organisms/environments AHD/W7
  elect adj chosen, carefully selected AHD/W7
  election n choice W7
  elite n/adj (re:) top cadre, powerful group TLL
  epilogue n concluding section rounding out literary work AHD/W7
  epistemology n study/theory of nature/grounds of knowledge AHD/W7
  etiology n cause, origin AHD/W7
  eulogy n high praise, commendatory oration TLL/W9
  florilegium n anthology, volume of writings AHD/W7
  genealogy n account of descent of person/family/group from ancestors/older forms AHD/W7
  homologous adj having same relative value/structure/position AHD/W7
  horologe n timekeeping device AHD/W7
  horology n science of time measurement AHD/W7
  hymnology n hymnody AHD/W7
  intelligent adj possessing intelligence AHD/W7
  lectern n reading desk AHD/W7
  lection n liturgical lesson for particular day AHD/W7
  lecture n discourse given to class/audience for instruction AHD/W7
  leech n surgeon/physician who used bloodsucking worms AHD/W7
  legacy n bequest, gift by will of money/personal property AHD/W7
  legal adj re: law AHD/W7
  legate n official emissary AHD/W7
  legation n diplomatic mission headed by minister W7
  legend n story from the past AHD/W7
  legendarium n collected body of J.R.R. Tolkien's writings re: Middle-earth LRC
  legible adj plain, capable of being read/deciphered AHD/W7
  legion n Roman army division: 3000-6000 foot soldiers plus cavalry AHD/W7
  legist n specialist in (branch of) law AHD/W7
  legitimate adj lawfully begotten AHD/W7
  legume n pulse, pea/bean, seed/fruit used for food TLL/W9
  leguminous adj re: legume W9
  lesson n sacred passage(s) read in worship service AHD/W7
  lex n law AHD/W7
  lexicon n dictionary, book containing words with definitions AHD/W7
  ligneous adj woody, of/resembling wood AHD/W7
  logic n canons/criteria of valid inference/reasoning AHD/W7
  logion n saying AHD/W7
  logistic adj re: logic/logistics AHD
  logistics n disposition of personnel/materiel AHD
  Logos prop.n reason: principle governing cosmos (Greek philosophy) LRC
  -logue n.sfx discourse, talk AHD/W7
  -logy n.sfx oral/written expression AHD/W7
  loyal adj faithful in allegiance to government AHD/W7
  malacology n zoology dealing with mollusks AHD/W7
  metrology n science of weights/measures AHD/W7
  neglect vb.trans to disregard, give little respect/attention to AHD/W7
  neologism n newly-coined word TLL
  paralogism n false argument contrary to logic AHD/W7
  potamology n scientific study of rivers AHD
  prelect vb.intrans to lecture, discourse in public AHD/W7
  privilege n right/immunity granted as peculiar favor/benefit/advantage AHD/W7
  proctology n medicine dealing with structure/diseases of anus/rectum/sigmoid colon AHD/W7
  prolegomenon n prefatory remarks AHD/W7
  prologue n preface/introduction (e.g. to play/discourse) AHD/W7
  psephology n study of political elections AHD
  psychology n science of mental behavior/processes AHD
  pteridology n study of ferns AHD
  relegate vb.trans to banish, send into exile AHD/W7
  sacrilege n theft/violation of something consecrated AHD/W7
  select adj chosen by fitness/preference AHD/W7
  sortilege n divination by lots AHD/W7
  syllogism n deductive scheme of formal argument: major/minor premise and conclusion AHD/W7
  technology n technical language AHD/W7
  teleology n study of evidence for design in nature AHD/W7
  thanatology n study of death/dying AHD
Old Frisian: le(t)za/leischa n leech ASD
Dutch: legatie n legation TLL
Old High German: lāhhi/lāche n leech W7
German: Liek n.neut leech LRC
  -logie sfx -logy W7
  Ökologie n ecology W7
Icelandic: laknari/læknir n leech ASD
Danish: legation n legation TLL
  læge n leech ASD
Swedish: legation n legation TLL
Gothic: lēkeis/leikeis n leech ASD
Latin: analogus adj analogous, proportionate W7
  apologia n apology AHD
  apologus n.masc apologue, narrative, Aesopic fable W7
  collēga, collēgae n.masc colleague, one chosen with another W7
  colligo, colligere, collegi, collectus vb to bind together W7
  conlēga, conlēgae n.masc colleague, one chosen with another W7
  delego, delegare, delegavi, delegatus vb to assign, commit, delegate W7
  dialectica, dialecticae n.fem logic, dialectic LRC
  dialectus adj re: discussion, dialectic W7
  dialogus n.masc dialogue, conversation between two people W7
  diligens, diligentis adj/vb.ptc zealous, diligent W7
  diligo, diligere vb to love, choose, esteem W7
  ecloga n.fem eclogue W7
  Eclogae Eclogues [title of Vergil's pastorals] W7
  electus, electūs n.masc election W7
  ēligō, ēlegere, elēgī, elēctum vb to choose, select LRC
  epilogus n.masc epilogue W7
  florilegus adj culling flowers W7
  horologium n.neut clepsydra, solar clock W7
  intellegō, intellegere, intellēxī, intellēctum vb to understand LRC
  intelligens, intelligentis adj intelligent, understanding W7
  lectio n.fem act of reading W7
  lector n.masc reader W7
  legalis adj of the law W7
  legatus n.masc deputy, emissary W7
  legendus vb.ger (thing) to be read W7
  legio, legionis n.fem legion, army corps W7
  legitimus adj legitimate W7
  lego, legāre vb to choose, depute, send (as emissary) W7
  legō, legere, lēgī, lēctus vb to read W7
  legūmen, legūminis n.neut legume TLL
  lex, legis n.fem law LRC
  ligneus adj wooden W7
  lignum n.neut wood W7
  -logia sfx study of W7
  logica n.fem logic W7
  -logus sfx person who studies W7
  necglego, neclegere, neclegi, neglectus vb to neglect, abandon W7
  neglegenter adv carelessly LRC
  praelego, praelegere, praelegi, praelectus vb to choose before W7
  privilegium n.neut law for/against private person W7
  prologus n.masc prologue: preface to play W7
  relego, relegare, relegavi, relegatus vb to relegate W7
  religio, religionis n.fem religious practice LRC
  sacrilegium n.neut temple robbery W7
  sacrilegus n.masc one who steals sacred things W7
  seligo, seligere, selegi, selectus vb to select W7
  sortilegus adj foretelling W7
  syllogismus n.masc syllogism: type of argument W7
Late Latin: apologia n.fem apology, speech in defense W7
  catalogus n.masc catalog W7
  genealogia n.fem genealogy W7
  lectio, lectionis n.fem lesson, reading W7
  lectura n.fem reading W7
  legibilis adj legible W7
  paralogismus n.masc paralogism W7
Medieval Latin: aetiologia n.fem statement of causes W7
  lectorinum n.neut lectern W7
  legenda legend, things to be read W7
  legista n.fem legist W7
  legitimō, legitimāre, legitimāvī, legitimātus vb to legitimate W7
  sortilegium n.neut spell, sortilege W7
New Latin: alexia n.fem incapacity to read W7
  analecta n.fem analects W7
  anthologia n.fem collection of epigrams W7
  florilegium n.neut anthology W7
  lectio, lectionis n.fem liturgical lesson for particular day W7
  Malacozoa n.fem soft-bodied animals W7
  teleologia n.fem teleology W7
Portuguese: legume n legume, vegetable TLL
Spanish: legumbre n legume, vegetable TLL
Old French: dialogue n.masc conversation between two people W7
  leçon n.fem lesson W7
  legat n.masc deputy W7
  légion n.fem legion, army corps W7
  leial, leel adj loyal W7
  -logie sfx science of, discourse on W7
  -logue sfx one who studies given discipline W7
  privilege n.masc privilege W7
  prologue n.masc prologue W7
  sacrilege n.masc sacrilege W7
Middle French: apologie n.fem apology W7
  catalogue n.masc catalog W7
  coillir vb to collect W7
  collègue n.masc colleague W7
  dialecte n.masc dialect W7
  diligent adj diligent W7
  epilogue n.masc epilogue W7
  genealogie n.fem genealogy W7
  horloge n.fem clock W7
  legacie n.fem office of legate W7
  légal adj legal W7
  legende n.fem legend W7
  legiste adj legist W7
  letrun n.masc lectern W7
  logique n.fem logic W7
  loyal adj loyal, faithful W7
  paralogisme n.masc paralogism W7
  silogisme n.masc syllogism, type of argument W7
French: apologue n.masc apologue, little fable with moral W7/R1
  légume n legume, vegetable TLL
  malacologie n.fem malacology, study of mollusks W7
  métrologie n.fem metrology, study of ancient measures W7
Italian: legume n legume, vegetable TLL
Greek: aitiologia n.fem statement of causes W7
  analegw vb to collect W7
  analekta collection, collected things W7
  analektos adj verbal W7
  analogos adj proportionate W7
  anthologein vb to gather flowers AHD
  anthologia n.fem flower gathering W7
  apologia n.fem apology, speech in defense W7
  apologos n apologue AHD
  genealogia n.fem genealogy W7
  dialegomai vb to converse W7
  διάλεκτος n.fem language LRC
  dialogos n.masc conversation between two people W7
  eklegw vb to select W7
  eklektikos adj selection of different things W7
  eklogē n.fem eclogue W7
  ἐλογίζω vb to think LRC
  epilegw vb to say in addition W7
  epilogos n.masc epilogue W7
  epistamai vb to know, understand W7
  epistēmē n.fem knowledge W7
  histamai vb to cause to stand W7
  katalegw vb to list, enumerate W7
  katalogos n.masc catalog W7
  λέγω vb to say, speak; gather LRC
  λέξις n.fem word, speech; style LRC
  logia n.fem collecting; discourse, speech W7
  λογίζομαι vb to calculate, think LRC
  logizomai vb to calculate W7
  logikē n.fem logic W7
  logikos adj of reason W7
  λόγιον n.neut oracle, announcement LS
  λόγος n.masc word, speech, reason LRC
  metrologia n.fem theory of ratios W7
  homologos adj agreeing W7
  paralogismos n.masc paralogism W7
  paralogos adj unreasonable W7
  prolegomenon n.neut introduction, what is said before W7
  προλέγω vb to say beforehand LRC
  prologos n.masc prologue, part of Greek play preceding entry of chorus W7
  syllogizomai vb to syllogize W7
  syllogismos n.masc syllogism, type of argument W7
  technologia n.fem systematic treatment of an art W7
  hymnologia n.fem study of hymns W7
  hōrologion n.neut clepsydra, solar clock W7
Late Greek: lexikon n.neut lexicon, dictionary W7
  lexikos adj of words W7
Medieval Greek: anthologia n.fem anthology W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
R1=Josette Rey-Debove and Alain Rey, eds. Le Nouveau Petit Robert (1993)
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)
W9=Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1983)

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