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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

Fans of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings may appreciate the source & meaning tips that pop up when the mouse pointer hovers over a non-obvious word or name that he coined from Indo-European (usually Old English or Old Norse) stock. But only reflexes of PIE etyma can be included, and these tend to concentrate in the vocabulary of Rohan and the Shire.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

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Pokorny Etymon: legh-   'to lie, recline, set down'

Semantic Field: to Lie, Recline


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: belecgan/bilecgan vb to belay, impose upon W7/ASD
  fēo-laga n fellow, partner, lit. money-layer W7
  lagu n.fem law W7/ASD
  lecgan vb.wk to lay W7
  leger n.neut lair, couch; reclining ASD
  licgan, læg, lǣgon, legen vb.str.V to lie, extend, be situated LRC
  ūtlaga n.masc outlaw W7/ASD
Middle English: beleggen vb to beset W7
  bilawe n bylaw W7
  coverlite, coverlet n coverlet W7
  felawe n fellow W7
  lair n lair W7
  law n law W7
  legge n gate bar W7
  leggen/leyen vb to lay W7
  legger n ledger W7
  lie n lees W7
  lien vb to lie, recline W7
  litter n litter W7
  outlawe n outlaw W7
English: anlage n rudiment, foundation for subsequent development AHD/W7
  belay vb to secure line by turns around pin/bitt/cleat AHD/W7
  beleaguer vb.trans to besiege, surround with army to prevent escape AHD/W7
  bylaw n rule adopted by organization for government/regulation AHD/W7
  coverlet n bedspread AHD/W7
  Danelaw prop.n Danish laws once enforced in N/E England AHD/CDC
  fellow n comrade, associate AHD/W7
  Fellowship prop.n band of 9 heroes in Tolkien: The Lord of the Rings LRC
  fellowship n group of friends/comrades LRC
  lagan n goods thrown into sea with buoy attached for later retrieval AHD/W7
  lager n beer brewed via slow fermentation AHD/W7
  lair n den, place to live/rest AHD/W7
  lair vb to wallow, cause to sink in mire AHD/W7
  law n binding rule of community conduct/action AHD/W7
  lay, laid vb.wk to beat/strike down; place, put/set down AHD/W7
  leaguer n military camp AHD/W7
  ledge n shelf, projecting ridge/raised edge along surface AHD/W7
  ledger n book in which account debits/credits are copied AHD/W7
  lees dregs, settlings from fermentation/aging AHD/W7
  lie, lay, lain vb.str.intrans to recline, be prostrate, rest in horizontal position AHD/W7
  litter n covered/curtained couch with shafts for carrying single passenger AHD/W7
  lochia n uterine discharge after childbirth AHD
  outlaw n person excluded from benefit/protection of law AHD/W7
  stalag n German military prison camp AHD/W7
  vorlage n position of skier leaning forward from ankles AHD/W7
  wagon-lit n railroad sleeping car AHD/W7
Scots English: lair n mire W7
Old Frisian: legor n lair, couch; reclining ASD
  leia vb to lay ASD
  liga vb to lie: recline ASD
Middle Dutch: leger n lair, leaguer AHD
Dutch: belegeren vb to beleaguer W7
Old Saxon: legar n lair, couch; reclining ASD
  leggian vb to lay ASD
  liggian vb to lie: recline ASD
Old High German: lāga n act of laying AHD
  legar n bed W7
  legjan vb to lay ASD
  ligen/lig(g)an vb to lie: recline W7/ASD
Middle High German: anlāge n request, anlage AHD
  lāge n act of laying AHD
German: Anlage n.fem plan, draft, layout, anlage W7
  belagern vb to beleaguer LRC
  Lage n.fem position W7
  Lager n.neut camp, storehouse W7
  Lagerbier n.neut beer made for storage W7
  legen vb to lay ASD
  liegen vb to lie: recline ASD
  Stalag n.neut stalag W7
  Stammlager n.neut prison camp W7
  Vorlage n.fem pattern, prototype W7
Old Norse: bȳlög n bylaw, rule adopted by town W7
  fēlag(i) n partnership W7
  lag n.neut lay, order, disposition LRC
  leggja vb to lay, put, place LRC
  lög n law W7
  ūtlagi n outlaw W7
  ørlǫg n.neut war; [pl.] fate, destiny LRC
  ørlǫglauss adj fateless (i.e. re: fate not yet imposed) LRC
Icelandic: leggja vb to lay ASD
  liggja vb to lie: recline ASD
  ūt-lagi n.masc outlaw ASD
Danish: leje n (mechanical) bearing TLL
Swedish: lager n (mechanical) bearing TLL
Gothic: lagjan vb to lay ASD
  ligan vb to lie: recline ASD
  ligrs n.masc lair, couch ASD
Latin: lectus, lecti n.masc bed, couch LRC
Medieval Latin: laganum n.neut debris washed up from sea W7
  lia n.fem dregs W7
Portuguese: lei n law TLL
  leito n bed, litter TLL
Spanish: lecho n bed, litter TLL
  ley n law TLL
Old French: lit n.masc bed W7
  litiere n.fem litter W7
Anglo-French: coverelyth n.masc coverlet W7
Middle French: lagan n.masc debris from the sea W7
  lie n.fem lees W7
French: lit n.masc bed W7
  loi n law TLL
  wagon-lit n.masc railroad car with beds W7
Italian: legge n law TLL
  letto n bed, litter TLL
Old Church Slavonic: ležati, ležǫ, ležiši vb to lie: recline LRC
Homeric Greek: λέχος n.neut bed, couch LS
Greek: λοχία n.fem lochia LS
  λόχιος adj re: childbirth/parturition LS
  λόχος n.masc childbirth, parturition LS


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
V=class 5
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
pl=plural (number)
str=strong (inflection)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
CDC=W.D. Whitney and B.E. Smith: The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia (1889-1911)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
LS=Liddell and Scott: Greek-English Lexicon, 7th-9th ed's (1882-1940), rev.
TLL=Frederick Bodmer: The Loom of Language (1944)
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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