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Indo-European Lexicon

PIE Etymon and IE Reflexes

Below we display: a Proto-Indo-European (PIE) etymon adapted from Pokorny, with our own English gloss; our Semantic Field assignment(s) for the etymon, linked to information about the field(s); an optional Comment; and Reflexes (derived words) in various Indo-European languages, organized by family/group in west-to-east order where Germanic is split into West/North/East families and English, our language of primary emphasis, is artificially separated from West Germanic. IE Reflexes appear most often as single words with any optional letter(s) enclosed in parentheses; but alternative full spellings are separated by '/' and "principal parts" appear in a standard order (e.g. masculine, feminine, and neuter forms) separated by commas.

Reflexes are annotated with: Part-of-Speech and/or other Grammatical feature(s); a short Gloss which, especially for modern English reflexes, may be confined to the oldest sense; and some Source citation(s) with 'LRC' always understood as editor. Keys to PoS/Gram feature abbreviations and Source codes appear below the reflexes; at the end are links to the previous/next etyma [in Pokorny's alphabetic order] that have reflexes.

All reflex pages are currently under active construction; as time goes on, corrections may be made and/or more etyma & reflexes may be added.

Note: this page is for systems/browsers with Unicode® support and fonts spanning the Unicode 3 character set relevant to Indo-European languages. Versions of this page rendered in alternate character sets are available via links (see Unicode 2 and ISO-8859-1) in the left margin.

Pokorny Etymon: leis-   'to furrow; learn'

Semantic Field: to Learn


Indo-European Reflexes:

Family/Language Reflex(es) PoS/Gram. Gloss Source(s)
Old English: (ge)leornian, (ge)leornode, (ge)leornod vb.wk.II to learn, study LRC
  lǣran, lǣrde, lǣred vb.wk.I to teach, advise, exhort LRC
  lǣst n.fem covering for the foot, boot LRC
  lǣstan vb.wk to last, follow W7/ASD
  lār n.fem lore W7/ASD
  lāst/lǣst n.masc track, footprint LRC
Middle English: last n last W7
  lasten vb to last W7
  lernen vb to learn W7
  lore n lore W7
English: delirium n mental disturbance involving confusion/disordered speech/hallucinations AHD/W7
  last n wooden/metal form shaped like human foot AHD/W7
  last vb to go on, continue in time AHD/W7
  learn, learnt vb.wk to gain knowledge/understanding of by study/instruction/experience AHD/W7
  lore n lesson, something taught AHD/W7
Old Frisian: ge-lerna/ge-lirna vb to learn, study ASD
  lāre n lore ASD
  lāsta/lēsta vb to do, pay, perform ASD
Old Saxon: lēra n lore ASD
  lēstian vb to do, perform ASD
  linōn vb to learn, study ASD
Old High German: leist n shoemaker's last W7
  leistan vb to perform ASD
  lēra n doctrine W7
  lernēn/lirnēn vb to learn W7/ASD
German: Lehre n lore ASD
  leisten vb to perform ASD
  lernen vb to learn, study ASD
Gothic: láisjan vb.wk.I to teach LRC
  láistjan vb.wk.I to follow LRC
Latin: delirium n.neut craziness W7
  deliro, delirāre vb to be crazy W7
  lira n.fem track, furrow W7


Key to Part-of-Speech/Grammatical feature abbreviations:

Abbrev. Meaning
I=class 1
II=class 2
fem=feminine (gender)
masc=masculine (gender)
neut=neuter (gender)
wk=weak (inflection)

Key to information Source codes (always with 'LRC' as editor):

Code Citation
AHD=Calvert Watkins: The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, 2nd ed. (2000)
ASD=Joseph Bosworth and T. Northcote Toller: An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898)
LRC=Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas, Austin
W7=Webster's Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary (1963)

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